Monday, October 5, 2009


Bats are mammals that can fly have wings and fangs of the order Chiroptera comes with both front legs evolved into wings. bats to spend time in trees, foraging at night, to have radar ear to communicate with others using longitudinal waves.

Sunday, October 4, 2009


Cuttlefish or "fish" bonus is an animal that lived in the waters, especially rivers and the sea or lake. These animals can be found in almost all large water both freshwater, brackish, or salt water at varying depths, from near surface to several thousand feet below the surface. Cuttlefish is also a kind of seafood meals.
Cuttlefish are often misinterpreted as a squid. The two are different because the flat-bodied squids, while the squid is more cylindrical. In addition, the shell of cuttlefish are composed of hard limestone, while the squid is tender.

Habitat Characteristics and Freshwater Ecosystems in Water and Sea - Biological Sciences :
Fresh Water Habitat characteristics
  1. Variations of temperature or low temperature
  2. Levels of salt or low salinity
  3. Penetration of sunlight is less
  4. adaptation of natural weather and climate around
  5. The flow of water occurs each time constant in the river
  6. Physical and biological habitat are intermediaries sea and land.
  7. Microscopic plants like algae and phytoplankton as primary producers.
Sea Water Habitat characteristics
  1. Variations of temperature or high temperature
  2. salinity / high salinity
  3. Penetration of high sunlight
  4. Habitat in the ocean linked / related to each other
  5. Flow or ocean currents keep moving because of differences in climate, temperature and rotation of the earth
  6. Saltwater community consists of producers, consumers, and decomposers zooplankton.

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Frog is a kind of field that a lot of frogs living in rice paddies, marshes, ditches and gutters, to the mangrove swamps. Fejervarya cancrivora scientific name, and in English is known as the Marsh frog, rice-field frog or crab-eating frog; last name was given because it preys on frog's favorite crab rice (Lat. cancer crabs, vorare eat, devour). People call it a frog Java ijo, because many of them are colored green. Other local names include Chinese toad (Btw.) and bangkong dingdang (Sd.). frog habitat can be at two of nature on land and water breathing with gills, food kecil2 frogs are animals such as mosquitoes, caterpillars, mosquito larvae.

metamorphosis in the frog:
  1. adult frog spawn, and after 10 days to hatch and called tadpoles.
  2. two days, will grow out of feathered gills used for breathing.
  3. Age 3 weeks, tadpoles will be closed by the skin.
  4. Age 8 weeks, the frog will have a rear leg.
  5. Age of 12 weeks, the front legs will be formed and enlarged hind legs, tail became smaller, then the other parts of the body will grow to perfection, the tail would fall off. Adult frogs breathe with lungs.


Horse (Equus caballus or Equus ferus caballus) is one of ten modern species of mammals of the genus Equus. This animal has long been one of the important livestock economically, and has an important role in transporting people and goods for thousands of years. Horses can be ridden by a man with a saddle and can also be used to draw something, such as wheeled vehicles or plows. In some areas, horses are also used as a source of food. The horses are mild, such as the Arabian horse, Morgan, Quarter Horse, Paint and Thoroughbred can weigh approximately 590 kg. Horses are "heavy" or load horses, such as the Clydesdale, Draft, Percheron, and Shire can weigh up to 907 kg.

Saturday, October 3, 2009


Bees are insects that have wings, legs and antennae on the body. Honeybees have a unique body construction in collecting and carrying pollen, namely by using nearly all parts of the body surface, mainly the thorax. Thousands to millions of grains of pollen will stick to the surface of the body, then cleaned with a special brush and into a special basket called pollen baskets located on its hind legs of bees. Pollen basket can accommodate 20 mg of pollen. Pollen produced by palm trees, Lamtoro, flower, fire, fire, rice, palm oil, lote, tobacco, cashew nut, pomegranate, lobbies, avocado, guava bol, salak, corn, beans, potatoes, coriander, carrots, purslane, black grass, and the daughter of shame, while plants producing nectar and pollen, among others: kapok kapok, eucalyptus, sugarcane, vanilla, coconut, sesame, coffee, kedondong, durian, papaya, waluh, watermelon, persimmon, banana, star fruit, apple , sweet orange, grapefruit, apple, longan, lychees, grapes, cabbage, cucumber, peanuts, soybeans, sunflower and flamboyant flowers.

Way of life
The female insects have an important role in this insect group. Behavior of bees is determined by the behavior of the female bee. Some female bees of a particular species living alone (solitary) and others known to have a social behavior. Solitary bees build their own nest and find food for the family without the help of other bees and usually die or leave the nest at the time the child has not become an adult bee. Sometimes several species of solitary bees feed and care for their children without giving up food for her children. While at a higher stage, bees live in groups and sharing of tasks in accordance with the physical form of each.

In a group (called "colonies") there are three "castes", ex:
  1. queen bee.
  2. female bees or worker.
  3. Male bee .

Queen Bees, Large body of the queen bee bigger than worker bees and weighs approximately 2.8x from workers. In a colony there is only 1 queen, when they will be present in the colony as a queen of two offspring then they will kill each other to fight the power. Queen bees are very powerful, very obeyed his orders in harmony all the inhabitants of the colony by colony. wherever the queen went so a colony of bees will follow. Besides, the queen is responsible as a successor bee colony's survival of eggs each day throughout their lifetime, ranging from 1500-2000 eggs per day. Age is also a queen bee longer than worker bees or a stud. Workers was about 40 daily, but the queen bee can live up to 3-5 years, about 30 times longer than worker bees. The secret lies in the food patterns, ie, consuming Royal Jelly all her life, compared with workers who only consume royal jelly at 3 days into larvae.

Worker bees are female bees, and they have a responsibility to work continued throughout his life. Female bees have a body size smaller than most queens and males. Having a slender body shape brownish-black, his tail has a stinger which is straight and thorny. This sting is a powerful weapon to protect both themselves and their nests and attack anyone who is considered dangerous to themselves and the colony. But too sad, so they will be stung to death. Worker bees responsible for different jobs vary depending on the age of each. A twist of nature that is very hard to believe, where a few moments after leaving the cocoon of a worker bee larvae immediately have a responsibility to clean the hive of filth, and when they were 3-10 days old so young worker bees produce Royal Jelly is a very necessary bee larvae and queen bees. This young worker bees responsible for feeding the larvae and queen bees, queen bees which consume Royal Jelly for life. Once was about 3 weeks, the worker bees and has promoted a new job outside the hive to find nectar flowers that will be processed into honey and flower pollen that is processed into bee pollen. Do you know how these workers on duty? These worker bees fly to find pollen and honey to descend a thousand flowers that are broke, he was sucking a drop of nectar and store it into a bag of honey in body. So they get about 375 grams of honey, the bees will be walking around as much as 75,000 times to take the nectar. How hard the worker bees are doing work, pacing back and forth to cover the distance from the nest colony until the distance 3 km from the nest.

Male bee, Drones physically smaller than the queen bees but bigger than worker bees. In addition other features of the most prominent is the large eyes, where the eye is composed of more facets of the facets in the eye worker bees and queen bees. In the body of male bees have no suction pipe honey and pollen does not have on foot bag. Due to the off-duty male bees to collect pollen or honey. The males only cleaning the nest, guarding the nest or tuga task light in a cage. In accordance with its name as a male, then its main function is to marry the Queen Bee and then die after mating.

The ability of worker bees collect nectar plants varied from 25-70 mg per fish (Gojmerac, 1983) and is determined by several factors, among others, the capacity of honey bag (honey-sac) worker bees, the number and concentration of nectar sugar, weather conditions and experience of a worker bee nectar collection. Nectar is a sweet secretion results from the plant, is the main ingredient constituent of honey. Nectar is a complex compound produced gland nectar plants in the form of sugar solution. Nectar found in the Petal, sepal, stamen and stigma. Nectar concentration varied between a flower plants with other plants flowers.Pollen or pollen is a source of protein for honey bees. Pollen derived from interest earned by the male sex cells (anther) plants. In cold climates, a colony of bees need about 50 kg of pollen per year. Drones serving the queen bee marries and will die after mating. Bee drones are the result of marriage (so diploid) fed on nectar and honey are used (not the "royal jelly"). There is also a bee who live alone, not in groups. Such types of bees called solitary bees.



Ants are insects eusosial from Formisidae family, and ants included in the order Himenoptera along with bees and wasps. Ants are divided into more than 12,000 groups, with a large proportion of which in the tropics. Ant colony is known to nest and nest-regular, which sometimes consist of thousands of ants per colony. Types of ants are divided into worker ants, ants, male and queen ants. One colony can occupy and use a large area to support their activities. Ant colony is sometimes called super-organisms due to their colonies to form a union.

The family Formicidae is part of the order Hymenoptera, which includes dragonflies, bees and wasps. Ants are descended from wasps Vespoidea generation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ants evolved from a dragonfly vespoid on the Cretaceous about 120 million to 170 million years ago.

Ant body consists of three parts, namely the head, mesosoma (chest), and metasoma (abdomen). Ant morphology is quite clear compared to other insects that also has an antenna, metapleural glands, and the second stomach that connects to the stem of the ants to form a narrow waist (pedunkel) between the mesosoma (thorax and the abdomen) and metasoma (abdomen less abdominal segments in the petiole). Petiole that can be formed by one or two nodes (only the second, or the second and third abdominal segments can be realized). ant chest there are three pairs of legs and at the end of each leg there is such a small claws to help climb up and rests on the surface. Most of the male and female ant queen candidates have wings. However, after mating the female will shed their wings and become the queen of wingless ants. Worker and soldier ants do not have wings.
Life of an ant starts from an egg. If the egg has been fertilized, the female incubated ant (diploid); if not the male (haploid). Ants are holometabolism, which is growing through a complete metamorphosis, passing through larval and pupa stages (with the pupa of exarate) before they become adults. Larval stage is a very vulnerable stage - more details ant larvae have no legs at all - and can not protect herself. The difference between queens and workers (which are both female), and between castes of workers, if any, determined at the time of the feeding time is still a larva. The food given to larvae by a process called trophallaxis where an ant regurgitates food previously stored in the crop for communal storage. This also means that the ants use to the distribution of food grown on other adult ants. Larvae and pupa should be kept at a fairly constant temperature to ensure they grow well, so often moved to various Brood Chambers in the colony.


Thursday, October 1, 2009


The dolphins are marine mammals are highly intelligent, but it was a complete natural system is very complex body. So much technology inspired by dolphins. One example is the skin of dolphins that can reduce friction with the water, so the dolphins can swim with a little water resistance. This is used by swimmers to design swimsuits that resemble the skin of dolphins.
The dolphins have a system that is used to communicate and receive stimuli called sonar system, the system can avoid objects in front of the dolphin, so avoid the collision. This technology is then applied in the manufacture of submarine radar. The dolphins are mammals. They live in the sea and rivers around the world. The dolphins are mammals such as whale and Irrawaddy Dolphin. There are more than 40 types of dolphins.
The dolphins live and work in groups called flocks. They often played together. A dolphin can not sleep well under water. He could drown. Therefore, he was half asleep for a moment in a day. Dolphins eat squid and fish such as fish gray mullet. Sometimes dolphins herd fish leads to easy arrest. The dolphins to find a way to send sound in water. If the sound of an object, the voice will be reflected back as echoes. Sometimes, the noise in the sea due to oil drilling can be confusing dolphin. They will have difficulty in sending and receiving messages.
The dolphins are classified as intelligent mammals. The dolphins could help humans, when the dolphins are trained, even the ring of fire they were able to breakthrough. Sea lions, species of primates, whales and dogs also includes an intelligent animal. Dolphins that are trained to perform a variety of attractions and they can also count, but the wild dolphins can not do many attractions. Today, dolphins and whales are rare, the dolphins and whales should be protected. Dolphins and whales have begun to be protected throughout the world.

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Snakes are legless reptiles and long bodied. Snakes have scales like a lizard, and are equally classified into scaly reptiles (Squamata). The difference is generally legged lizards, have ears, and eyelids that can open the lid. However, for cases legless lizard (eg Ophisaurus spp.) This difference becomes blurred and can not hold onto.

Habitat and Food.
Snake is one of the most successful reptiles flourished in the world. In the mountains, forests, deserts, plains, farms, neighborhoods, down to the sea, can be found in snakes. Only, as is a cold-blooded animals, snakes increasingly rare in places where cold, like the peaks, in Irlanda and New Zealand and regional areas or polar snow.

Snakes prey on a variety of smaller animals from the body. Aquatic snakes prey on fish, frogs, tadpoles, and even fish eggs. Snakes and tree snakes prey on terrestrial birds, mammals, frogs, the types of other reptiles, including the eggs. Large snakes such as pythons can grow preys goats, deer, deer and even humans.

Habits and Reproduction.
Snakes eat prey round; means, without the chewed into pieces smaller. Teeth in the mouth of the snake does not have a function to chew, but simply to hold their prey in order not easily separated. In order to smoothly swallowed, the snake usually choose to swallow the prey with its head first.
Most species breed snakes lay eggs. The number of eggs could be a few grains only, up to tens and hundreds of eggs. Snakes lay their eggs in the holes of the ground, caves, holes rotted wood, or beneath piles of dried leaves. Several types of snakes known to watch over the eggs until they hatch; even pythons 'hatching' eggs.
Some snakes, like snakes spotted sacking, snake shoots and dead sea snakes 'birth' children. Actually, do not give birth like mammals, but the eggs develop and hatch inside the parent body (ovovivipar), then exit as a small snake.

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Elephant Habitat

Elephants are the largest animals that live on land. Elephants including mammals, as well as humans, cats or cows. Characteristic of mammals is a way of developing breeding with childbirth. In contrast to birds, reptiles and fish, which breed by laying eggs and then hatched. Certain fish species such as sharks, but also laying the eggs remain in the stomach developing in the mother and the mother's stomach. Because that's when the baby is born sharks are in the form of whole fish.
Type of elephants on this earth only African elephants and Asian elephants. African elephants live in grasslands, forests, river flow areas and also in certain jungle. Meanwhile, Asian elephants live in dense forests, tropical forests and areas that grew thick, for example in India and the island of Sumatra. African elephants bigger than Asian elephants. The length of the African elephant ivory reaches including 8 meters by 4 meters high, weighs about 6,000 kg. The most striking difference is the ears. African elephant ears larger than Asian elephants. Types of African elephants have a circular forehead and back of the flat, the Asian elephant is more prominent forehead and his back sharply.

Elephant breeding and growth.
Like all mammals, elephants have the baby by means of sexual reproduction. The fetus grows and develops in its mother's stomach. The fetus receives food and oxygen through its parent organ called the placenta. Mother elephant pregnant with his child for approximately 22 months. At birth, the baby elephant was hairy and had a few incisors, but it is still difficult to stand. Baby elephant when he was born weighing up to 120 kg with a height of 90 cm. At the end of the first year, a baby elephant hair and skin changes become hard and has learned to distinguish edible plants and how to take the grass. 2-year-old before he had a tusk used to strip the bark and roots dug from the ground.

Ear, Elephant's trunk and voice.
Elephant ear length reaches 1.5 meters, width 50 cm. Large ears are used for fanning herself if overheated and to frighten enemies. Long trunk is used to take food, sucking up water and then put into the mouth. It also serves to lift something. The sound produced from the elephant trunk. These voices sound waves emitted in the so-called "infrasonic", used to call a group or a female elephant to a few kilometers away. The noise that the elephants are to be reunited with members of separate groups.

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