Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Tortoises (Testudinidae) are a family of land-dwelling reptiles


Tortoises (Testudinidae) are a family of land-dwelling reptiles of the order of turtles (Testudines). Like their marine cousins, the sea turtles, tortoises are shielded from predators by a shell. The top part of the shell is the carapace, the underside is the plastron, and the two are connected by the bridge. The tortoise has both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton. Tortoises can vary in size from a few centimeters to two meters. Tortoises are usually diurnal animals with tendencies to be crepuscular depending on the ambient temperatures. They are generally reclusive animals.

There are many old wives tales about the age of turtles and tortoises, one of which being that the age of a tortoise can be deduced by counting the number of concentric rings on its carapace, much like the cross-section of a tree. This is not true, since the growth of a tortoise depends highly on the accessibility of food and water. A tortoise that has access to plenty of forage (or is regularly fed by its owner) will grow faster than a Desert Tortoise that goes days without eating.
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The American Box Turtle was named for its boxed shaped lower shell



The American Box Turtle was named for its boxed shaped lower shell, which appears hinged and closed. By tightening its lower shell against the upper shell, the turtle is able to protect the soft areas of its body during times of danger by totally encasing himself.

The American Box Turtle has a rounded, high upper shell, which can appear painted with many colors. The upper shell of the turtle commonly grows to 7-inches or more in size.

Turtles are classified in 12 families. The Northern Hemisphere's largest family is that of common freshwater turtles (Emydidae), which includes about a third of all turtle species and is abundant in S and E Asia, E North America, and Central America. Members of this group have webbed feet; many spend most of the time in freshwater ponds or marshes; some live in brackish estuaries. They include such well-known North American turtles as the pond turtles (including the spotted, wood, and Muhlenberg's turtles), the painted turtle, the sliders, the diamondback terrapin, and the Blanding's turtle. The box turtle, which is primarily terrestrial, belongs to this family. Land tortoises (Testudinidae) form the second largest family. Tortoises have high-domed shells, move on club-shaped feet, are vegetarian, and live in warm regions throughout the world. The musk turtles and mud turtles (family Kinosternidae) are common small turtles of the E United States, and are found only in the Americas. The soft-shelled turtles (family Trionychidae) are flat-bodied, carnivorous freshwater turtles of the Northern Hemisphere, with a leathery covering instead of horny shields on their shells. The snapping turtle family (Chelydridae) is a North American group that includes the common snapper and the alligator snapper.

Marine turtles are classified in two families. The family Chelonidae includes five sea turtle species of tropical and subtropical distribution: the green turtle, the loggerhead, the hawksbill (or tortoiseshell turtle), the Kemp's ridley, and the olive ridley. The family Dermochelidae includes only one species, the leatherback, or leatherneck, largest and heaviest of all turtles, weighing as much as 1100 lbs (500 kg). Marine turtles lack toes, and their legs are oarlike, allowing speeds of nearly 20 mph (32 kph) in the water. With the exception of the loggerhead, all are endangered, either by pollution with plastic debris, which some turtles eat by mistake, or by commercial fishing, especially shrimp trawling. Commercial trade in all endangered sea turtles is banned; however, many wild turtles are skinned for leather and tortoiseshell ornaments, or taken for food.
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The superfamily Chelonioidea



The superfamily Chelonioidea has a world-wide distribution; sea turtles can be found in all oceans except for the polar regions. Some species travel between oceans. The flatback sea turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia.

Sea turtles are almost always submerged in water, and, therefore, have developed an anaerobic system of respiration. Although all sea turtles breathe air, under dire circumstances they may divert to anaerobic respiration for long periods of time. When surfacing to breathe, a sea turtle can quickly refill its lungs with a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation. Their large lungs have adapted to permit rapid exchange of oxygen and to avoid trapping gases during deep dives. However, sea turtles must emerge while breeding, given the extra level of activity.
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The East African Black Mud Turtle


The East African Black Mud Turtle has a moderately domed, dark colored carapace. It will usually have clearly visible growth annuli. There is no keel and no serrations. The plastron is yellow with dark seams or just a dark border, (but plastral color and markings are somewhat variable.) There is a hinge on the plastron which allows adults to close the front end only. The large head is generally brown colored and may be dappled with gray and black spots. The jaws are tan or yellow. There are two subspecies, P .s. subniger and P. s. parietalis (Seychelles Islands black mud turtle.)

Natural Habitat: The East African sideneck is a tropical mud turtle from Eastern and Southeastern Africa and and Madagascar. Although strong swimmers, they are usually found in shallow waters of soft bottomed marshes, streams and ponds. Mud turtles are hardy. They are designed to withstand poor conditions. If it gets too hot, too cold or too dry they will estivate, burrowed into the mud, until better conditions arrive.

Captive Habitat: A 20 gallon long aquarium is the minimum adaquate size for one juvenile turtle, and adults will appreciate more swimming room. Provide as large a habitat as possible, while maintaining the temperature requirements. (Example of a tropical aquatic habitat. And another view.) The water should be at least as deep as the turtle is wide. To keep this turtle happy and active, the water will need to be heated to 78 - 82 degrees F. by an underwater heater. Water pH should be kept at 6.0 - 6.5 to prevent skin problems. Captive Pelusios are eager baskers, so a dry area with a warm basking light is required . An additional reptile light may be physically and psycologically beneficial. During the day, the basking light will heat the air, so monitor the water and air temperatures to keep them within the comfort range of 80 - 88 degrees F. If no filtration system is used, the water must be syphoned and replaced two or three times each week. A variety of filtration systems is available in pet stores. A powerful canister filter will help maintain good water quality, which will prevent skin and shell infections. (Click to see an example setup.) Feeding the turtle in a separate container will also help keep the vivarium cleaner.

Diet: African mud turtles are primarily carnivorous but will eat aquatic plants too, especially as juveniles. In the wild they eat the water grasses and algae, insects, worms, snails, small fish, amphibians, and crabs. Captives adapt to eating commercial floating turtle sticks (e.g. ReptoMin or Reptile T.E.N.), and these are fine if supplemented with more carnivorous fare, such as crickets, earthworms and snails. It is important to provide plenty of calcium. Keeping a cuttlebone in the habitat will allow the turtle to self-regulate calcium intake. There's more on turtle diets at this link: What Should I Feed My Turtle?

Personality: Pelusios subniger can be very aggressive toward other turtles and should not be housed with other species. They will kill fish, mice, frogs and even birds. You should be wary with your fingers around them! But according to most owners, they acclimate well to captivity, seldom become ill, and are very good pets. It should be possible for dedicated owners to breed them in captivity and eliminate any need to take them from the wilds. Breeding turtles is most likely to be successful in large, outdoor habitats.

This turtle spends most of it’s time in the water, leaving only to bask or lay eggs. An adult male or smaller female (some females top out at 12 inches, while others attain 18 inches in length) will require an aquarium of at least 100 gallons in capacity, but a larger enclosure would be preferable. Turtles kept in aquariums should be afforded the opportunity to swim and forage in larger, temporary quarters, such as a child’s wading pool, when possible. Large females will require a custom aquarium or outdoor pond.
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The African side-necked turtle


The African side-necked turtle (also known as Pelomedusidae) are found in places such as Africa, and Madagascar. While many people are a bit leery of bringing these beautiful animals into their homes, individual turtles make wonderful pets for the whole family. That is to say you are an experienced turtle owner; as these turtles aren’t for the beginner turtle owner!

They are usually found within freshwater lakes and rivers; making it important to offer them some fresh water to swim in within their enclosure. Fortunately, there are many vets and reptile specialists that understand enough about these turtles to help you create the perfect habitat for one.

Despite their popularity as pets, they are even more popular with those who enjoy turtle soup. Perhaps, it is the smell that many people are turned off on. Simply because their musk glands are fully functioning and can make this turtle a little hard to sniff.

These turtles do have a tendency to nip whenever a hand gets too close, making it important for you to keep little hands out of their enclosure. With that said however, they do make great pets for adults and respectful children.

Medium-sized, sideneck turtles with five claws on the hind feet, four to eight neural bones present, the pleural bones almost always meeting at the midline behind the neurals, mesoplastral bones present, and the pelvis fused to the plastron

Size
Up to 21.6 in (55 cm) carapace length

Number of genera, species
2 genera; 18 species

Habitat
Freshwater habitats, from permanent rivers and lakes to ephemeral ponds

Conservation status
Vulnerable: 2 species

Distribution
Africa, Madagascar, and the Seychelles Islands
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Green python has a clearer head




Green python has a clearer head shape which can be distinguished from the closed neck of small scales, nostris in a single nasal or nasal divided. Each nasal is separated by small scales, on the anterior labial, rostral, and several labial below the hole. Green Python snake pupils have a vertical form, without premaxillary teeth, large anterior and posterior teeth small, slightly flattened body covered by fine scales, the tail is, prehensile, subcaudal two rows of scales. This snake has a length between 1.5 meters to 1.8 meters.

Green python (Morelia viridis) living in the tropics, tropical rain forests, mountains and forests, both primary forest and secondary moist forests. The spread of these types of snakes are in Australia and New Guinea in the Aru Islands. This snake has only one species of Morelia viridis.

According to Van Hoeve (1988) in Kustiarto (1990), Green Sanca generally live in primary forests and secondary forests, occupies lowland habitats and water, even dubbed the animal half of the water because her life is more like water. Green Foods Python snake (Morelia viridis) is generally a type mice and small rodentia by twisting of the treetops and then swallow it.

In the low-pressure environment, then it will have fertility levels Sanca Green snake (Morelia viridis) is high. It will be obvious to the arrest of Green Python snakes in the wild by the community
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two-headed snake


two-headed snake
Unlike normal usually if a snake is a common occurrence for people, but the appearance of the head of two of these can make people stress, but the actual figure is quite captivating. Truly two-headed snake is an animal conjoined twins, attached to one another through the organs or their body parts. This means they are stuck with the sharing of organs, one head is a parasite to others.

The birth of conjoined twins like this occurs when the cleavage of the embryo in the process of forming into identical twins, whether for some reason before birth cleavage is not complete. The point where the embryos stop dividing varied so that these snakes can connect anywhere on the body. Studies on snakes suggest that almost the entire two-headed snake have difficulty in their environment.

Although this two-headed snake must share part of the body, the second head is not so mutual "understanding" each other, so take everything individually. So often they find themselves in situations where they must fight to find the food. Because they share a single head of the body which also shares the same organ, as the head of one meal, then head of the others will also feel full. Maybe this is not understood that the head does not eat when you feel full as well as he did not do anything.
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The classification of bats




Bats are the only mammals that can fly using wings. Bats are mammals that can fly from the order Chiroptera with both front legs are developed into wings. Actively foraging bats and fly only at night because bats are very sensitive to dehydration (water shortage). During the day he sleeps with hanging upside down. Habitat (where he lives) is usually in caves, outdoor, or dipepohonan. Very little is known about bat evolution, because the fossils 55 million years ago was already like a bat that exist at present. The first known bat named Icaronycteris, living in North America and has a wingspan over 37 cm. Short and broad wings.

Besides having good eyesight, bats rely more on a loud voice to lead him to fly. He wheezes called "Ultrasonic" is not humans can hear. These sound vibrations have frequencies between 25000-50000 Hz. If you hit an object or objects, sound vibrations that bounce back, then caught his ears wide that serves as a radar for him. This process only takes a split second, enough for bats to find out what's in front of him, where they lead and how fast. His nose is oddly shaped such as leg of the horse, trident with a bulge, making it able to remove ultrabunyi.

Bats have a lot of species, ranks second after the rodent mammal. Of the 4,000 species of mammals, 1,000 of them are species of bats. To classify them, bats are divided into two main groups named "Megachiroptera" and "Microchiroptera". Moreover, it can be grouped according to food and its capacity. Bat with a wingspan of 2 meters and weigh up to 1.5 Kg Megachiroptera or included in the group known as "Bats". The characteristics of bats are big eyes, because they do not have a system of echolocation. Finding food in the form of fruits and flowers by relying on sight and smell. Bats living in areas of Asia and Africa was small, eat pollen, two wings 30 cm wide with a weight of 15 gr. These bats Microchiroptera included in the group with a better system of echolocation, but his eyesight is less clear.

Here is the classification of bats:
1. Pteropodidae (fruit bats)
2. Emballonuridae (bat tail-Poster)
3. Megadermatidae (false vampire)
4. Nycteridae (Bat face-concave)
5. Rhinolophidae (-horseshoe bats)
6. Hipposideridae (Barong)
7. Vespertilionidae (Bats usual)
8. Molossidae (bat-lip wrinkles)

The real difference between the bat's wings with the wings of birds are on the expansion of the fleshy body and wings are not feathered membrane made of elastic but muscular. Wings are often called "Patagium", extending from the body to toe front, rear legs and tail. In the female bats Patagium serves to hold her new born with the head down position. In addition to flying, bat wings serve to wrap his body while hanging upside down. There are two kinds of bats have wings. The first is a small wing, usually owned by the bats that live in the open that allows you to fly quickly without any obstacles in front of him. Wide wings of bats that live owned the place closed, which flew quietly among the tree branches.

Fruit bats, like other bats, have very long, webbed fingers that serve as wings. Fruit bats also have very good senses of smell and sight (contrary to the myth that all bats are blind).

Fruit bats tend to live in large colonies, or "camps." Within these camps, one male fruit bats usually lives with up to eight female bats.

Fruit bats are nocturnal, and hang from their feet during the day. They may hang with their wings wrapped around their bodies, or, if it is hot, may use their wings to fan themselves. Although fruit bats are good at flying, landing is another story! Fruit bats can't land gracefully, and instead must crash into bushes or trees to come to a stop, or try to latch onto a branch as they pass by. Sometimes these crash-landings disturb other fruit bats at the site, and cause noisy fights amongst them.

Fruit bats, as their name hints, consume fruit and flowers. These bats usually suck on the flowers and fruit, then swallow the nectar or juice and spit out the remaining pulp. Habitat: Dense forest areas. Predators: Humans sometimes eat bats.

The 51 species of sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats constitute the family Emballonuridae, and can be found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world. Emballonurids include some of the smallest of all bats, and range from 3.5 to 10 cm in body length. They are generally brown or grey, although the ghost bats (genus Diclidurus) are white.

They have short tails, which project through the tail membrane so that the latter forms a sheath. As their name indicates, most species also possess sac-shaped glands in their wings, which are open to the air and may release pheromones to attract mates. Other species have throat glands which produce strong-smelling secretions.

Megadermatidae, or False Vampire Bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia. They are relatively large bats, ranging from 6.5 cm to 14 cm in head-body length. They have large eyes, very large ears and a prominent nose-leaf. They have a wide membrane between the hind legs, or uropatagium, but no tail. Many species are a drab brown in color, but some are white, bluish-grey or even olive-green, helping to camouflage them against their preferred roosting environments. They are primarily insectivorous, but will also eat a wide range of small vertebrates.

Nycteridae is the family of slit-faced or hollow-faced bats. They are grouped in a single genus, Nycteris. The bats are found in East Malaysia, Indonesia and many parts of Africa.

They are small bats, from 4 to 8 cm in body length, and with grey, brown, or reddish fur. A long slit runs down the centre of their faces from between the eyes to the nostrils, and probably assists in echolocation. They have large ears, and a complex nose-leaf. Their tail ends in a T-shape, formed from cartilage, a feature that is unique among mammals.

Rhinolophidae is a family of carnivorous and insectivorous bats known from the Old World. The family is divided into two clades, Rhinolophinae and Hipposiderinae. Rhinolophinae currently includes 1 genus and over 60 species (Koopman, 1993). Hipposiderinae is a somewhat more diverse group that includes 9 genera and over 70 extant species.

All rhinolophids share the following characteristics:
Presence of a well-developed noseleaf.
Absence of a tragus.
Modifications of the hyoid apperatus, including m. stylohyoideus with a slip that passes deep to digastic muscles, reduction of the ceratohyal to half the length of epihyal, and a large, flat expansion or "foot" on lateral cranial tip of the stylohyal.
Modifications of the ribcage, including fusion of at least the first five anterior ribs to the vertebrae, fusion of the second rib to the sternum, costal cartilages absent or ossified, and ribs that lack anterior laminae.
Absence of m. omocervicalis absent.
Dorsomedial edge of the ascending process of the ilium upturned, flares dorsally above the level of iliosacral articulation, iliac fossa large and well-defined.
Articulation between pubes in male restricted to small area, consists of an ossified interpubic ligament or short symphysis.
Obtuator foramen patially infilled with thin, bony sheet along posteroventral rim.
Gall bladder located in umbilical fissue of liver.

Hipposideridae is a family of bats. While it has often been seen as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae, of the family Rhinolophidae, it is now more generally classified as its own family. Nevertheless, it is most closely related to Rhinolophidae within the suborder Pteropodiformes (or Yinpterochiroptera).


Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as Evening bats or Common bats, are the largest and best-known family of bats. They belong to the suborder Microchiroptera (microbats). There are over three hundred species distributed all over the world, on every continent except Antarctica. It owes its name to the Latin word vespertilio ("bat"), from vesper, meaning "evening."

Molossidae, or free-tailed bats, are a family of bats within the order Chiroptera. They are generally quite robust, and consist of many strong flying forms with relatively long and narrow wings. Another common name for some members of this group, and indeed a few species from other families, is Mastiff Bat. The Western mastiff bat, Eumops perotis, a large species from the southwestern United States and Mexico with wings over 0.5 m (1.6 ft) across, is perhaps one of the best known with this name. They are widespread, being found on every continent except Antarctica.
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Monday, June 20, 2011

Bison is a large and wild mammals





Bison is a large and wild mammals. His head was large and had a big hump on his back. Her hair, long dark brown rough again. His chin beard. Bison live in Europe and the United States. In the United States, bison called "buffalo". Food is typical bison grass.

First bison live clustered in western Canada and the United States. When there are approximately 50 million bison living. Indians hunted bison for food. Bison body parts they use are also to clothing, tents, tools, adhesives, and fuel.

In the 1800s the whites moved to the West. White hunters killed so many buffalo that the animal was nearly extinct. Around 1900 only a few hundred. Some people try to improve the zoo and return the number of bison. Now most of the bison live in a zoo or in a protected herd. The amount has now increased.

Lowland Bison Bison bison classified as bison, wood bison as Bison bison Athabasca, and the European bison as Bison bonasus.

A bison has a shaggy, long, dark brown winter coat, and a lighter weight, lighter brown summer coat. As is typical in ungulates, the male bison are slightly larger than the female. Bison bulls can reach up to 6 feet 6 inches (2 m) tall, 11 feet 6 inches (4 m) long, and weigh up to 2.200 pounds (1.000 kg). [9] The heaviest recorded bison weighed 2.800 pounds (1.300 kg ). [10] The heads and forequarters are massive, and Both sexes have short, curved horns That can grow up to 2 feet (61 cm) long, the which They use in fighting for status within the herd and for defense.
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A turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris





A turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris. One species, Meleagris gallopavo, commonly known as the Wild Turkey, is native to the forests of North America. The domestic turkey is a descendant of this species. The other living species is Meleagris ocellata or the Ocellated Turkey, native to the forests of the Yucat√°n Peninsula. There are several extinct species dating from as far back as 23 million years ago.

Turkeys are classed in the taxonomic order of Galliformes. Within this order they are relatives of the grouse family or subfamily. Males of both species have a distinctive fleshy wattle or protuberance that hangs from the top of the beak — called a snood in the Wild Turkey and its domestic descendants. They are among the largest birds in their ranges. As in many galliform species, the male (tom or gobbler) is larger and much more colorful than the female (hen).

Those who don’t know a snood from a wattle (the flap of skin under the turkey’s chin) are sure to be intrigued by the following little-known turkey facts:
Turkeys recognize each other by their unique voices.
Researchers have identified more than 20 distinct vocalizations in wild turkeys.
Turkeys have excellent geography skills and can learn the specific details of an area of more than 1,000 acres.
Like cats and dogs, turkeys are intelligent and sensitive animals who form strong social bonds and show great affection to others.
On factory farms, turkeys frequently have the ends of their beaks and toes cut off without anesthesia — practices know as debeaking and detoeing — to prevent them from injuring one another as they are crowded by the thousands into dark, filthy warehouses.
The weight of the average turkey raised commercially in the U.S. increased by 57 percent between the year 1965 and the year 2000. Farmed turkeys were bred to grow up to an average of 28.2 pounds, causing commercially-bred turkeys to suffer from crippling foot and leg problems.
Completely unlike their wild ancestors not only in terms of physique but also in hue, most commercial turkeys are totally white — the natural bronze color selectively bred out of them to eliminate uneven pigment colorations — because of consumer preference for even flesh tones.
Also catering to consumer preferences for “white meat,” the industry has selectively bred turkeys to have abnormally large breasts. This anatomical manipulation makes it difficult for male turkeys to mount the females, eliminating these birds’ ability to reproduce naturally. As a result, artificial insemination is now the sole means of reproduction on factory farms, where breeder birds are confined for months on end.
Turkeys, along with other poultry, are not protected by the federal Humane Slaughter Act, and are frequently killed without first being stunned.
Every year, more than 46 million turkeys are killed for Thanksgiving holiday dinners, but it doesn’t have to be this way. If you think these birds are as incredible as we do, you can join talk show host and animal advocate Ellen DeGeneres, Farm Sanctuary’s 2010 Adopt-A-Turkey Project spokesperson, in starting a new tradition this year by adopting a turkey instead of eating. Visit adoptaturkey.org for details or call the Turkey Adoption Hotline at 1-888-SPONSOR.
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Aardvark Afrikaans for "earth pig"





Aardvark (Afrikaans for "earth pig"), a mammal-eating semut.Aardvark can be found throughout Africa, from southern Egypt to the Cape of Good Hope. Aardvark is nocturnal animals (nocturnal), living in a hole and eat ants and termites, sometimes eat other insects and obese mice.
Aardvark length over 2.3 meters, including the body, and a pointy tail. Aardvark has a curved back, like a pipe and a big nose. His nails are shaped like chisels to destroy the termite nest is made of hard clay, and then he uses a sticky tongue to catch insects from the nest. Unlike other ant-eating animals are usually not toothed, Aardvark has 20 teeth cylinder that will continue to grow during his life.
The female will give birth once or sometimes twice per delivery. Aardvark Children can dig your own hole when I was 6 months. Even Aardvark including animals shy, he will fight when he can not escape or dig to escape, using the power of his opponent with a fingernail or wag his tail.

Aardvark means 'earth-pig' in Afrikaans. They are very secretive animals so very little is known about their way of life. They are active by night, and have been shown by the use of radio collars to travel up to 30km in a night. They live alone, except for females with young, in burrows 3-4 metres long, with a sleeping chamber at the far end which is large enough to allow them to turn around easily.

They are clean animals, and small pits are dug around the burrow for their droppings. When full, these are covered over with earth. Each animal will have several burrows, some of which are just shelters from bad weather, or bolt-holes to protect them from predators. Larger sites are used for breeding, and these may have a number of large chambers which can be up to 13 metres long and can be reached via several entrances.

Aardvarks forage for food only at night. They have bad eyesight, but have excellent senses of smell and hearing, which they use to help find termite nests. They walk in zigzags, sniffing the ground and pointing their ears forwards. Once a nest has been located, aardvarks are ideally equipped for breaking in. They have long, spoon-shaped claws and powerful forelimbs ideally adapted to burrowing into termite mounds and can penetrate nests which could not be broken through by a man using a pickaxe. There are four claws on each front foot and five on each back foot.

When the nest has been broken into, the aardvark can probe the hole with its snout. The snout is long, and is protected from dust by a fringe of rough bristles. The nostrils close up when the aardvark is burrowing. Aardvarks have thin and sticky tongues up to 45cm long. They are ideal for feeding on ants or termites swarming through a hole in their nest.

Little is known about the aardvark's breeding habits because of its secretive lifestyle. We do know though that their gestation lasts for seven months, and that the young are born just before or during the rainy season, when food is most plentiful. At birth, young aardvarks weigh about 2kg, and after about two weeks, they are able to go with their mothers on foraging trips. They remain with them for about six months, by which time young aardvarks are capable of digging their own burrows, though they may still remain with their mothers for a little while longer.
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Raccoon is the small mammals





Raccoon is the small mammals that live in North America, Central America, South America and some islands in the West Indies. Raccoon family with a panda. Adult raccoon length 61 cm to 107 cm including the tail length of 20 to 40 cm. Raccoon furry brownish; bushy tail, long, and bergelan-black bracelets. Raccoon face marked with black fur around her eyes so it looks like a mask. Raccoon hunted down and taken his fur to make hats and coats.

Raccoon teeth and claws are very sharp so that she can hold food or other objects with his front leg. Raccoon good at swimming. He lived in the forests near rivers or lakes and often nest in trees. Raccoon diet consists of meat and fish, nuts, seeds, fruits, eggs and insects. Sometimes a raccoon washing advance what he ate.

Species common raccoon (Procyon lotor) are found in almost all America. every spring the mother raccoon give birth usually 4 to 6 children, and members of a family of raccoons live and move together for 1 year.

Other raccoon species, scattered from Costa Rica to southern South America, the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus). This species is longer than other species, although slightly shorter tail; teeth are thicker and stronger and shorter.

Raccoons can sometimes be a nuisance to plants in your backyard or get into your attic, but you should never, ever forcibly remove them or do anything that could bring them harm. Call a raccoon removal service that will make sure they get back to their natural habitat in the most humane manner possible. Or, if you don’t mind having the little guys in your yard, you could always try leaving them a snack!

Raccoons can cause substantial damage. In urban areas, raccoons damage building (particularly attics and roofs), gardens, fruit trees, lawns, garbage cans and trash containers. They are also attracted to pet food left outdoors and will attack pets. Occasionally, one or more raccoons will establish a communal toilet area resulting in time of the deposition of a large number of scats. In rural areas, raccoons may feed on farm crops or raid poultry houses. A raccoon typically attacks birds by biting the head or upper neck area. The heads of adult birds are usually bitten off and left some distance from the body. The crop and breast may be torn and chewed and the entrails eaten. Raccoons have been known to mutilate poultry in cages by pulling heads or legs off. Several kills may be made during a single night raid with part of one or more carcasses fed upon. Dead fowl may be at the kill site or dragged several yards away. Raccoons are also serious predators of wild bird populations. Reports indicate that raccoons have been responsible for eliminating local populations of some nesting waterfowl.

Raccoons are not threatened or endangered. They are classified as furbearers in California. Fur harvest regulations are set by the California Department of Fish and Game. A trappers license or depredation permit may be required before taking any raccoons. It is a violation of California state law for any wildlife to be kept as pets. Only authorized wildlife rehabilitators may keep injured or orphaned wildlife and then only for limited periods of time. California Department of Fish and Game regulation prohibit the relocation of raccoons and other wildlife without written permission of the Department. For further information on the legal status of raccoons and other wildlife, contact your California Department of Fish and Game regional office.
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The tapir is a jungle animal




The tapir is a jungle animal that is classified as a herbivore mammal. Tapirs are further classified into four subspecies: Brazilian, Malayan, Mountain, and Baird. Tapirs can be found in jungles around South America, Southeast Asia, and Central America. Due to the odd distribution of their toes, tapirs are closely related to rhinoceros and horses. Tapirs are sometimes called "bush hogs" by English Creole speakers.


Tapirs are large animals that can weigh up to 700 pounds. They can grow as long as a meter tall and seven feet long. Their coats of hair are usually dark gay, brown, or black. Newborn tapirs often have patterned coats that serve as camouflage to help them avoid detection by predators. They have hoofed toes, four in the front and three in the back. They have pig-like snouts which help them smell, groom and feed.


Tapirs enjoy roaming their jungle habitats always staying close to a water source. They enjoy wallowing in mud to keep themselves cool and to gain a protection layer against pesky insects. With the exception of their immediate family, tapirs are known to be mostly solitary. Females will typically give birth to one baby every two years. Their gestation period of 13 months, one of the longer periods for mammals.

In the jungle environments, tapirs face many dangerous predators such as tigers, jaguars, alligators, and anacondas. Tapirs are very agile and fast despite their girth. All tapir subspecies are sadly endangered, mostly due to hunting, climate change, and the destruction of their natural habitats.

Tapirs are hoofed mammals and animals with large bodies, short legs, and head of short, flexible trunk, small eyes and erect ears. These animals live in forests and grassy areas in Central and South America, and Asia. When tapirs are threatened, they will flee into water or into the bush to save himself.

Tapirs eat the leaves, fruits, and other crops. Tapirs enemies other than man is a member of the cat family. Cat habitat is reduced due to hunting and deforestation, so the two species are found in the northern Andes and Panama in danger of extinction.

Tapirs look something like pigs with trunks, but they are actually related to horses and rhinoceroses. This eclectic lineage is an ancient one—and so is the tapir itself. Scientists believe that these animals have changed little over tens of millions of years.

Tapirs have a short prehensile (gripping) trunk, which is really an extended nose and upper lip. They use this trunk to grab branches and clean them of leaves or to help pluck tasty fruit. Tapirs feed each morning and evening. During these hours they follow tunnel-like paths, worn through the heavy brush by many a tapir footstep, to reach water holes and lush feeding grounds. As they roam and defecate they deposit the seeds they have consumed and promote future plant growth.

Though they appear densely built, tapirs are at home in the water and often submerge to cool off. They are excellent swimmers and can even dive to feed on aquatic plants. They also wallow in mud, perhaps to remove pesky ticks from their thick hides.

New World tapirs generally live in the forests and grasslands of Central and South America. A notable exception is the mountain (or woolly), tapir, which lives high in the Andes Mountains. Woolly tapirs, named for their warm and protective coat, are the smallest of all tapirs.

The world's biggest tapir is found in the Old World—Southeast Asia. The black-and-white Malay tapir can grow to 800 pounds (363 kilograms). It inhabits the forests and swamps of Malaysia and Sumatra.

All four tapir species are endangered or threatened, largely due to hunting and habitat loss.
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Toucans are primarily frugivorous



Toucans are primarily frugivorous (fruit eating), but are opportunistically omnivorous and will take prey such as insects and small lizards

Tukan Bird is a big beaked bird of tropical regions. Tukan There are 37 species of birds, many of whom live in the forests of Central and South America. The length of the bird between 30 to 61 cm. Beak and feathers are usually red, orange, blue, yellow, and black. Tukan large bird's beak is actually hollow and light. Part was to protect his face when he was picking fruit.
Tukan birds live in small herds in the treetops. Tukan Bird seems to play together and easily tamed. Tukan not melodious sound of birds. However, some types of which are accomplished voice impersonator.
Tukan birds nesting in a hollow tree trunks and stumps. Sometimes birds live in holes Tukan woodpecker. When sleeping, bird beak Tukan put on his back and closes his tail with the tail.
For three or four weeks after hatching, young birds Tukan can not open his eyes. A few weeks later, before he left the parent nest.
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The platypus is an Australian mammal




The platypus is an Australian mammal that exhibits many unusual characteristics. Besides its strange appearance, it lays eggs and is venomous, unlike many other mammals. Once hunted, the Australian government currently protects it and it’s hoped that despite being under environmental stress, the current protection will help ensure its survival.

The platypus is one of five species of mammals that are monotremes. Monotremes are unique mammals that lay eggs instead of live young. The mating season occurs between June and October and appears to be polygamous in nature. After mating, the female platypus builds a deep burrow where she will lay anywhere from one to three leathery eggs. The eggs develop for approximately a month in utero and when laid, incubate for another ten days outside. When born, the female takes care of its young for three to four months. The platypus lacks nipples and instead secretes its milk out through its pores. Grooves on its abdomen collect the milk and allows the young to drink it. The male platypus takes no part in the upbringing of the young.

Platypus is a small mammal that is different from most other mammals; he spawn. The only other mammals that lay eggs is a spiny ant eater. Platypus lives in Australia to the east. Platypus flat and webbed foot, while the tail wide, flat, covered with thick soft fur, brown. Adult male platypus length approximately 61 cm and weighs about 21 kg. On the back foot female platypus are poisonous spurs.
Platypus lay eggs like birds and reptiles. Usually two eggs. After the eggs hatch, like other mammals, the platypus feeding her child. Platypus lived on the banks of a muddy river. These animals come out at night to look for small crayfish, worms, and insects.
Platypus man found in 1797. These animals are very good swimmer and can dive for up to five minutes. Because the duck-like snout, the animal is often called duck-billed platypus.

The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is endemic to Eastern Australia and Tasmania. It, unlike other mammals, lays eggs instead of giving birth to live young. In addition, it is one of the few venomous mammals known. Once hunted for its pelt, it currently enjoys protection by the Australian government, throughout its habitat.

The platypus is a carnivore that eats mainly worms, larvae, shrimp and crayfish. An adult platypus can weigh more than five pounds and needs to consume half its weight in food on most days. The platypus can locate its food by electrolocation. Electroreceptor cells in the front of the platypus’ bill can detect the electrical fields of the muscular contractions of its prey, thereby directing the platypus to its prey. Once caught, the prey is placed in cheek pouches and brought to the surface, where it is consumed.

The platypus is a semi-aquatic mammal that has a broad body and a flat tail that contains its fat reserves. Their feet are webbed and it has a broad duck-like snout. The snout is sensory in nature, with its mouth underneath it. The eyes and nose of the platypus are located in a crease right behind the rubbery duck-like bill. The platypus spends most of its time swimming in water, foraging for food. They move about using their front legs mainly in a rowing motion. Males contain ankle spurs on their forelegs. Poison glands, beneath the ankle spur, secrete venom that can inflict a very painful wound. Females don't develop functional ankle spurs or poison glands.

A male platypus contains venomous ankle spurs that are located on its forelegs. The venom produced is non-lethal to humans, but is capable of inflicting a painful wound. The affected area becomes edematous and in some cases, long-term hyperalgesia can result. Since males are the only gender to possess this venom and venom production appears to peak during breeding season, there's speculation that these spurs may mainly be used as a male dominance factor and secondarily as a means of protection.

The platypus is a solitary animals that usually only comes together to mate. They tend to be shy and are most active in the early morning and evening hours. Besides feeding and mating, they spend countless hours on land and like to groom themselves. One unusual characteristic is that they like to wedge themselves between a rock or tree and the ground. During wedging the platypus’ metabolic rate is less than when it’s resting at the surface. Scientists feel that it may do this in order to rest and conserve its energy. The platypus is capable of emitting a variety of sounds, especially when upset. The most common one tends to be a soft growling sound when disturbed.
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Tachyglossus aculeatus are eating animals that include monotremata





Tachyglossus aculeatus are eating animals that include monotremata, or mammals that lay eggs. Short-beaked nose found in Australia. Body length about 35 to 53 cm, has a wide body and long legs. His legs have powerful claws, used for digging. Small head and nose equipped with a slender snout. Beaked do not have teeth, but it has a wide, sticky tongue that is perfect for capturing ants, termites, and other small insects. Beaked produce one egg or two eggs, but rarely two eggs. Then the eggs are placed in a pouch on the abdomen, where the eggs then hatch in 10 to 11 days. Children's beaked then brought in the bag until about 55 days, until he finally can run.
Beaked greater than the short-beaked nose comes from Tasmania. Beaked species is classified as Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus. Beaked New Guinea, Zaglosus brujuni has a long snout and curving. Small-beaked typically used as pets only human-beaked Natural enemies who sometimes eat meat.

Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Monotremata
Family: Tachyglossidae
Genus: Tachyglossus
Species: aculeatus

Description:
The short nosed spiny anteater's body length can be up to 530 mm, with a tail about 90 mm long. Spines, which are specialized hairs covering most of the body, are large, hollow and thin walled, measuring up to 60 mm in length. Spines are usually yellow with black tips, but can be entirely yellow. Underneath the spines, short-nosed anteaters are covered with dark brown or black body hair. The head is small and often has the appearance of having no neck. The tail is short, stubby, and naked underneath. The snout is long and slender and about half the head length. The feet have five digits with flat claws used for digging. Males have a hollow spur on the hindfoot which is hollow but lacking in venom.

Habitat and Range:
The short-nosed spiny anteater is found in forests, hilly areas, sandy plains, and rocky areas of Australia.

Diet:
Their diet consists mainly of ants and termites.

Behavior:
Short-nosed spiny anteaters are solitary except during the breeding season.

Communication:
To avoid predation, short nosed spiny anteater will often burrow directly down in soil, leaving only the spines on their back protruding, while their claws grasp tightly to the substrate underneath. This makes an effective shield of spines to deter almost any predator.

Reproduction:
Short nosed anteaters have a short gestation period, from 9 to 27 days. The egg is deposited into a pouch. After a brief incubation of about 10 days, the egg hatches and the young will remain in its mother's pouch to suckle for several weeks until it develops spines. They have been known to live for more than 50 years in captivity.

Species Status:
Short-nosed anteaters are not endangered. They have few native predators; however, dogs, foxes, feral cats, and other animals prey on them. Habitat loss and fast-moving cars are their greatest threat.

Interesting Facts:
As the result of an iron-binding protein in its system, a mother echidna's milk is pink in color.
By Oowais Siddique
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