Sunday, August 5, 2012


Name: Velociraptor
Length: 2 m, (height of the body when standing 1 m)
Mass: 50 kg
Period: Late Cretaeceous
Eating: The animals are smaller than his size

Velociraptor means of high-speed thief (speedy thief). Has 30 sharp teeth and long, flat beak, and neck shape like the letter "s". Moving with both legs (feet) it is strong, and small size, these animals have characteristics similar to the cheetah. However, raptors often hunt in groups of 3-10 tail raptor. Another characteristic of the raptor (in addition to the two strong legs) is the capacity of his brain that is thought to have capabilities similar to chimpanzees (able to communicate with fellow raptor through specific sounds). Flight speeds reaching 40 miles per hour. Velociraptor fossils found in Russia, Mongolia, and China.
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Name: Triceratops
Length: 9 m, height 3 m
Mass: 12 tons
Period: Late Cretaeceous (68 million years ago)
Eating: Nature

Triceratops means three-horned face in Greek. This animal has horns over 1 m by 2 pieces on top of his eye, and another shorter at the top of his nose. Thing that most distinguishes this animal from other animals are capable of growing skull bones along the 2m, nearly a third of its body length. The animal was found in the Americas. This animal is not expected in groups and individually. Horn serves as a position against another triceratops like deer at this time (courtship). These animals are the object of considerable research favored by scientists because of the many fossils found.

In addition to these hewn fossils are found, the animal is renowned for the eksotisannya, a unique physical shape and impressed "friendly" to the community made ​​it an icon of prehistoric animals which the kids loved.
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Name: Tyrannosaurus rex
Length: 12 m, height 6 m
Mass: 7.5 tons
Period: Cretaeceous (68 million years ago)
Eating: plant-eating animals

Tyrannosaurus rex greek language support means in a ruthless king lizard. Just like the raptor, T-rex limbed two, neck resembles the letter "s", and has a tail as a balancing movement. T-rex has a large skull (1.5 m) surrounded by muscle tissue stronger enabling him to easily chew their prey. These animals are found in the Americas and the continent of Asia (Tarbosaurus). Arm of this animal is quite small, just over 1 m and have not found the actual function of this arm. Recent research (April 2008) says that T-rex has a kinship with the birds, crocodiles, and ostriches. Although his body is large enough, T-rex has a lot of muscles that enable it to run at speeds 40-70 km / h. Another capability of this animal is able to smell the smells of the great distances that can compared to the vultures at the moment. Until now it is debatable whether the real T-rex or a scavenger hunt animals.
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Golden Toad

Latin Name Bufo periglenes
Conservation Status Extinct (1989)
Location Costa Rica
Colour Golden/Orange
Length 4 - 5.5 cms (1.6 - 2.2 inches)
Mostly Terrestrial
Breeding Season
Rainy Season

Main Characteristics

Golden Toads were small toads, reaching lengths of 5.5 cms (2.2 inches). Males were colored a very vivid golden/orange and their skin was shiny and bright. Females however, had very different colouration, they were dark olive/black and they had scarlet spots with yellow edges.

The striking differences between males and females wasn't determined until they became adults, because when they were juveniles both sexes were of similar size and colour.


Golden Toads were found in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, Northern Costa Rica. They inhabited an area of 10 Sq. Kms (6.2 Sq. Miles) and it is believed that they lived under ground for most of the year.


Their diet mainly consisted of small insects.


Golden Toads used to breed during one week in April. Males would gather around small pools and wait for females. They would fight amongst themselves for the opportunity to breed.

Approximately 200 eggs would be laid in a clutch in the water and they would hatch 2 months later.

Interesting Facts

Golden Toads are also known as:
Monteverde Golden Toad
Monte Verde Toad
Alajuela Toad
Orange Toad
Sapo Dorado

The last sighting of a Golden Toad was in 1989.
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Mammoth is a genus of extinct ancient elephant. Body sizes larger than normal elephants in the world today. tusks
circular shape and curve inward, in northern species, with long hair.
There is a misconception that mammoths bigger than an elephant. The largest known species of mammoth, Imperial Mammoth of California, have high backs at least 5 meters. Mammoth generally weighs 6-8 tons, but the mammoth big male can weigh up to 12 tons. 3.3 meter long mammoth tusk was found in the north of Lincoln, Illinois in 2005. Most species have mammoth size of a modern Asian Elephant.
Quagga-like zebras and never found in large numbers in South Africa. Quagga can be distinguished from other zebras by having the sign on the front of the body. Quagga is a mixture of horse and zebra. Quagga's name comes from the Khoikhoi word for zebra. Quagga become extinct due to hunting by humans who try to get the meat and skin.
Declared extinct in 1883.

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The Tarpan which is the name in Turkish language meaning “Wild Horse” is a now extinct subspecies of wild horse that was found throughout Poland and Russia. The photograph included in this article is the only known photo of a live Tarpan. The photo was published in 1884, 15 years before the last Tarpan held in captivity passed away making the Tarpan officially extinct. The last specimen was being held in Russia at the time of its death in 1909.

Since the 1930′s scientists and breeders have been trying to “back breed” the Tarpan from descendants of the species such as the Polish horse. Over the years, although so far unsuccessful, these attempts at back breeding have given us a number of similar species such as the Heck Horse and Stroebel’s Horse. Although neither of the breeds are the same as the original Tarpan they do share some characteristics such as the distinct grullo color.

Although the Trapan species was kept alive in captivity until 1909 wild Tarpan actually became extinct much earlier in 1890. In is believed that the population of wild Tarpan was dying out from 1875 onward and in 1890 the last known wild Tarpan mare was accidentally killed when trying to capture the animal, its from here onwards that the species in generally considered extinct.

Known primarily throughout Central Russia and Poland the Tarpan is believed to have had , at one point, a much broader range, possibly covering France and Spain. There is little evidence of this however what evidence there is does point to the existence of the wild Tarpan through Spain and France such as cave paintings and artifacts depicting the Tarpan.

“Polish primitive horses” today are considered a direct descendant of the Tarpan as these horses are the product of the the preservation act set up by the Polish government in Bialowieza forest lands specifically to protect the descendants of the Tarpan.

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quagga (Equus quagga quagga)

DNA analysis has shown that the Quagga was not a separate species of zebra but in fact a subspecies of the Plains Zebra (Equus Quagga) The Quagga, formerly inhabited the Karoo and southern Free State of South Africa. Like other grazing mammals, Quaggas had been ruthlessly hunted. They were seen by the settlers as competitors for the grazing of their livestock, mainly sheep and goats.

The quagga (Equus quagga quagga) is an extinct subspecies of the plains zebra, which was once found in great numbers in South Africa's Cape Province and the southern part of the Orange Free State. It was distinguished from other zebras by having the usual vivid marks on the front part of the body only. In the mid-section, the stripes faded and the dark, inter-stripe spaces became wider, and the rear parts were a plain brown. The name comes from a Khoikhoi word for zebra and is onomatopoeic, being said to resemble the quagga's call. The only quagga to have been photographed alive was a mare at the Zoological Society of London's Zoo in Regent's Park in 1870.

The quagga lived in the drier parts of South Africa, on grassland. The northern limit seems to have been the Orange River in the west and the Vaal River in the east; the southeastern border may have been the Great Kei River. It was hunted for its meat and hide, and is one of the many victims of modern mass extinction.

The quagga was originally classified as an individual species, Equus quagga, in 1778. Over the next 50 years or so, many other zebras were described by naturalists and explorers. Because of the great variation in coat patterns (no two zebras are alike), taxonomists were left with a great number of described "species", and no easy way to tell which of these were true species, which were subspecies, and which were simply natural variants.

Long before this confusion was sorted out, the quagga had been hunted to extinction for meat, hides, and to preserve feed for domesticated stock. The last wild quagga was probably shot in the late 1870s, and the last specimen in captivity, a mare, died on August 12, 1883 at the Natura Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam. Because of the confusion between different zebra species, particularly among the general public, the quagga had become extinct before it was realized that it may have been a separate species.

The quagga was the first extinct creature to have its DNA studied. Recent genetic research at the Smithsonian Institution has demonstrated that the quagga was, in fact, not a separate species at all, but diverged from the extremely variable plains zebra, Equus burchelli, between 120,000 and 290,000 years ago, and suggests that it should be named Equus burchelli quagga. However, according to the rules of biological nomenclature, where there are two or more alternative names for a single species, the name first used takes priority. As the quagga was described about thirty years earlier than the plains zebra, it appears that the correct terms are E. quagga quagga for the quagga and E. quagga burchelli for the plains zebra, unless "Equus burchelli" is officially declared to be a nomen conservandum.

After the very close relationship between the quagga and surviving zebras was discovered, the Quagga Project was started by Reinhold Rau (1932–2006) in South Africa to recreate the quagga by selective breeding from plains zebra stock, with the eventual aim of reintroducing them to the wild. This type of selective breeding is also called breeding back. A foal of the Quagga Project, named Henry, was born on 20 January 2005. In early 2006, the third and fourth generation animals produced by the project were reported to look very much like the depictions and preserved specimens of the quagga. The practice of breeding back generally and specifically whether looks alone are enough to declare that this project has truly recreated the original quagga are both controversial.

DNA from mounted specimens was successfully extracted in 1984, but the technology to use recovered DNA for breeding does not yet exist. In addition to skins such as the one held by the Natural History Museum in London, there are 23 known stuffed and mounted quagga throughout the world. A twenty-fourth specimen was destroyed in Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad), during World War II.

By selective breeding from a selected founder population of southern Plains Zebras an attempt is being made to retrieve at least the genes responsible for the Quagga’s characteristic striping pattern.

The project is aimed at rectifying a tragic mistake made over a hundred years ago through greed and short sightedness. It is hoped that if this revival is successful, in due course herds showing the phenotype of the original quagga will again roam the plains of the Karoo.

When the Quagga mare at Amsterdam Zoo died on 12 August 1883, it was not realised that she was the very last of her kind. Because of the confusion caused by the indiscriminate use of the term "Quagga" for any zebra, the true Quagga was hunted to extinction without this being realised until many years later.

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Javan Tiger

The Javan Tiger is the middle sized tiger species that made its home in the Indonesian islands. Larger than the Bali Tiger yet smaller than the Sumatran Tiger the Javan Tiger as the name suggests lived on the island of Java up until its extinction which occurred some time in the 1980′s. The Javan Tiger could grow up to a length of 8 feet and weigh in at around 300lbs with females of the species being smaller and weighing slightly less.

The coat of the Javan Tiger was deep orange with long, thin, dark stripes that were more numerous than that of its larger relative the Sumatran Tiger. As with both the Sumatran Tiger and the Bali Tiger Bergmann’s rule applies to the Javan Tiger. Bergmann’s rule details that the size of the predator, in this case the Javan Tiger is dependent on the size of available prey. This theory fits as the Javan Tigers prey was indeed smaller than that mammals on Sumatran.

The Javan Tiger’s were slowly but surely forced into smaller areas of Java over the years starting at the end of the 18th century when the tigers were widespread but considered a pest by humans. by 1940 the Javan Tiger’s had retreated unto dense forests and mountainous areas and in the next 30 years the Javan Tiger could only be found on Mount Betiri which was eventually formed into a nature reserve to protect the species. The last confirmed sighting of the Javan Tiger was in 1976.

There were a handful of factors that contributed to the extinction of the Javan Tiger, mostly human in origin. As humans expanded on Java the practice of poisoning the Javan Tiger’s and their prey was common as they were seen as a plague. The Rusa Deer which was the Javan Tiger’s main food source was also decimated from disease in the 1960′s. After World War 2 most of the forest land was severely fragmented due to the expansion of rubber and coffee plantations, this coupled with armed groups intentionally killing the Javan Tiger’s destroyed the population.

Although considered extinct there are still reports of Javan Tiger’s to this day however the credibility of these reports are questionable and none have been proven as of yet.

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Caspian tiger

The Caspian tiger, Panthera tigris virgata, once ranged in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia, and the Central Asiatic area of Russia and probably went extinct in the 1950s. Three tiger subspecies are considered to have become extinct in the past 70 years, the Bali, Caspian and Javan tigers.

Scientific Name: Panthera tigris virgata
Range: Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia, and the Central Asiatic area of Russia
Average Weight:
  Female: 85-135kg (187 - 297 pounds)
  Male: 170-240kg (374 - 528 pounds)
Size (Length):
  Female: 2400-2600mm (8'-0" - 8'-6")
  Male: 2700-2950mm (9'-0" - 9'-8")
Diet: All tigers are carnivorous. Tiger prey consists mostly of pigs, deer, antelope, buffalo and other large mammals, although tigers have been known to hunt smaller mammals and birds.
Gestation Period: 100-110 Days (Most Average 103 Days)
Cub Maturity: 18 months - 2 years
Cubs Per Litter: (Usually 2-3 cubs) Cubs are born blind and weigh 2-3 pounds.
Lifespan: Tigers live for 10-15 Years
Predators: Unknown, Man
Social Structure: Solitary (except during Mating Season)
Territory Size: Unknown. Today tigers occur in parts of India, Manchuria, China, Indonesia and Russia (Siberia).
Conservation Status: Extinct since the 1950's.
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Syrian Wild

Syrian Wild Ass likely extinct when the last animal died at the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, in 1928. Widespread throughout Mesopotamia, clustered in large flocks in the mountains and the desert steppes of the Middle East.
Although previously been threatened, said that the Syrian Wild Ass completely discharged during World War I, when their habitat is flooded by the Turkish armed forces and British troops.
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Hartebeest FACT FILE:
Swahili Name: Kongoni
Scientific Name: Alcelaphus buselaphus
Size: 48 inches at the shoulder
Weight: 165 to 350 pounds
Lifespan: 12 to 15 years
Habitat: Open plains
Diet: Herbivorous/grazer
Gestation: 8 months
Predators: Cheetahs, jackals, lions, hyenas, leopards,hunting dogs, humans

Coke's hartebeest, also called kongoni, is the most widespread hartebeest. It is found on the open grassy plains and tree grasslands in southern Kenya and Tanzania.

Physical Characteristics
The hartebeest is a large, fawn-colored antelope that at first glance seems strangely misshapen and less elegant than other antelopes. Clumsy in appearance, it is hump-shouldered, with a steeply sloping back, slim legs and a long, narrow face. It is far from clumsy, however, and is in fact one of the fastest antelopes and most enduring runners. These qualities gave rise to the name "hartebeest," which means "tough ox."

Scientists differ about the classification of the hartebeest. Some consider the group to have several geographic representatives of the same species, while others think it represents different species. The shape of the horns and the color of the coat seem to be the most important diagnostic indicators. Hunter's, Jackson's, Lichtenstein's and Coke's hartebeest are found in East Africa.

Hartebeest are mainly found in medium and tall grasslands, including savannas. They are more tolerant of high grass and woods than other alcelaphines (archetypical plains antelopes).

The hartebeest is one of the most sedentary antelopes (making it easy to hunt), but it does move around more when larger groupings form during the dry seasons or in periods of drought, to seek water and better grazing. At other times the females form small groups of five to 12 animals that wander around their home range. Most mature males become solitary and spread out in adjoining territories. Hartebeests go to water regularly, but in some circumstances territorial males appear to go without drinking for rather long periods. The home ranges are usually densely populated. When a territorial male returns from watering, he may find another in his place.

Females are free to seek the best grazing in their home range, but males cannot leave their territories for long if they intend to keep them. Successful breeding only takes place within the territories-open, short-grass areas of ridges or rises on plateaus are the most favored spots. Males strenuously defend their territories; they often stand on open, elevated areas to keep a lookout for intruders. Should a territorial male be challenged, a fight may develop. Males are aggressive, especially so during breeding peaks. Like many antelopes, however, hartebeests have developed ways of fighting that determine dominance without many fatalities or serious injuries. A ritualized series of head movements and body stances, followed by depositing droppings on long-established dung piles that mark the territory's borders, normally precede any actual clashing of horns and fighting. After the dominance ritual, one male may leave. If not, the hartebeest with its stout horns, short, strong neck and heavily muscled shoulders, is well-prepared for fighting. If the dispute over a territory is serious and both males are prepared to fight over it, severe injury may result.

The hartebeest feeds almost entirely on grass, but is not very selective and quite tolerant of poor-quality food. It has suffered from the expansion of cattle raising, as hartebeests and cattle compete for the same food.

Caring for the Young
The social organization of the hartebeest is somewhat different than that of other antelopes. Adult females do not form permanent associations with other adults; instead, they are often accompanied by up to four generations of their young. Female offspring remain close to their mothers up to the time they give birth to calves of their own. Even male offspring may remain with their mothers for as long as 3 years, considered an unusually long bonding period. As groups of females move in and out of male territories, the males sometimes try to chase away the older offspring. Their mothers become defensive and protect them from the males. Although bachelor herds of young males are also formed, they are less structured than those of some antelopes, and age classes are not as conspicuous.

Young are born throughout the year, but conception and breeding peaks may be influenced by the availability of food. The behavior of the female hartebeest when she gives birth is very different from that of the wildebeest. Instead of calving in groups on open plains, the hartebeest female isolates herself in scrub areas to give birth and leaves the young calf hidden for a fortnight, only visiting it briefly to suckle.

Juvenile mortality is thought to be relatively low, despite the number of potential predators. Cheetahs and jackals prey on small calves, while young and adult hartebeests are killed by lions, hyenas, leopards, hunting dogs and people.
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Sea horse

Sea horse is an animal that has undergone evolution since 40 million years ago (Fritzhe, 1997). Termed in the genus Hippocampus comes from the Greek word for horse head-shaped marine animals, (hippos = horse's head; campus = animals).

Seahorses in Indonesia known as tangkur horse that is one of a small marine fish species that are very different from other fish species that have the crown of the head of sea horse, the body is slightly flattened and curved, the whole body covered by a kind of armor composed of plates - bone plates or rings - rings, small eyes and the same width, has a snout, tail longer than head and body, and may hold, the pectoral fins

short and wide, the dorsal fin is large enough, being a small anal fin and caudal fin absent (Nontji 1993; Hansen and Cummins, 2002) (Figure 1). Further Nova (1997) states that the sea horse has a head like a horse, perpendicular to the body on which there is a crown or so-called Coronet, as peculiar as a human fingerprint. As well as lizards, sea horses have eyes that can move freely, it is very helpful for survival and predation tactics. Sea horse has a tail that can be wrapped around like a monkey.

Figure 3. Hyppocampus barbouri

According to the Dames (2000), sea horse body size is relatively small and unique body composition to make them barely able to swim, fish are capable satusatunya captured directly by hand. Further Anonymous (2002) states that the length of the sea horse between 5 cm - 36 cm depending on the species. Seahorse taxonomy according to Hidayat and Silfester (1998) are as follows:

Phylum: Chordata
Sub-Phylum: Vertebrata
Class: Pisces
Sub Class: Teleostomi
Order: Gasterosteiformes
Family: Syngnathidae
Genus: Hippocampus
Species: Hippocampus spp

Seahorse does not have scales like other fish, but more miripkulit that stretched over a series of plates of bone, which gives kenampakanbercincin in the stomach and body.

According to Simon and Schuster (1997), the basic color of sea horses change - change from predominantly white to yellow ground, sometimes - sometimes have spots - spots or bright or dark lines. These changes slowly - land of the tip depends on the intensity cahaya.Walaupun Valentine mostly sea horses have a natural brown color, mixed color, gray and brown or even black color to match its environment, it can change the color of the sea horse as well as chameleon during the approach and propose a partner, and also to hide from predators. There are also several species that can make themselves into a fluorescent orange to dark purple (Hidayat and Silfester, 1998). Furthermore Al Qadri et al (1998) states that the difference in color in horses does not mean that different types of sea, sea horse is one animal that is often and very easy to change color. Differences in the type - the type of sea horse is the most prominent is the presence of thorns - thorns or bones that appear on each ring (ring) in the body and the crown, the other difference is there is a slim body shape and is longer and there is also a large and wide.


According to Al Qodri (1999) by far some of the biological characteristics of seahorses has been learned that is spreading a little, or rarely, a small habitat range and faithful to your partner. All these characteristics make it difficult to come by sea horses in large numbers.

Interesting aspects of the biology of the male sea horse is that there are pockets

eggs hatch located below the stomach that presented by the female sea horse. Incubation bag is located on the front and has a hole that can be closed. The inside of the hatch bag can release substances that become food for children - children are newly hatched. The new foal out of the sea has had the ability to swim alone (Hidayat and Silfester, 1998).

According to Mann (1998) most seahorse species produce eggs

approximately 100-200 grains, and some have reached 600 eggs, the male will incubate the child - his son during the 10-14 days of incubation in the bag

comes a kind of placental tissue for oxygen supply. Behavior of sea horse swim upward generally very slow and did not like the way the fish swim in general. To compensate for the slow swimming ability, seahorses have a tube-shaped mouth (Moyle and Joseph, 1998). Furthermore Qodri et al (1999) states that the sea horse is the animal is diurnal animals are active during the day or as long as there is sun light irradiation was less active at night as an example of Hippocampus whitei in Australia and Austria. Spawning takes place either at the time of morning, afternoon or evening. In the daytime sea horses do all the activities of his life actively. Based on eating behavior, seahorses are passive predators that wait for passing food and attack their prey by sucking up to get into the muzzle. Good environmental camouflage will fool their prey. Sea horse will ingest anything small enough to fit in his mouth, mostly small crustaceans such as amphipods, but also the children of fish and other invertebrates (Anonymous, 2002).

Parent seahorses were thought to have little relation to the ability of a predator in disguise, by way of settling in a place and a thorn in his unappetizing. But they never found in the belly of large pelagic fish like tuna fish. They are also eaten by penguins and other water birds. Sea horses even ever found in the stomachs of sea turtles.

Crabs may be the most threatening predators. Young sea horse is the most widely used as prey by other fish. For some populations of sea horses, humans are the biggest predators (Lourie et al, 1999).

According to Hansen and Cummins (2002), can disrupt the flow of the sea horse population, waste disposal on the beach and floating on the surface of the sea caused a lot of horse people who died and others disappeared. Natural lifespan of seahorses is not known for certain. Most estimates derived from observations in the aquarium or in the laboratory. The lifespan of seahorses known for about a year for a smaller type, to an average of three to five years for larger species (Dames, 2000).

Most types of seahorses are monogamous by membentukikatan pair ended the breeding season (and even that ended after a breeding season), although some species may not form a bound pair (Lourie et al, 1999; Dames, 2000).


Sea horse has a market value at home and abroad.

Because it has economic value for people who use the marine biological resources, the resources should seahorses properly and sustainably managed.

Benefits of the sea horse is a traditional medicine, aquarium fish, souvenirs, food and tonic. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the market

largest trading seahorses (Hansen and Cummins, 2002). At various times throughout medical history of the west, the sea horse is used to help milk production, cure baldness, rabies, leprosy danpenyakit mad dog, and will cause death when mixed with wine (Whitley, 1998). In Japan seahorses are used as amulets for pregnant - pregnant women in hopes of having a baby with a smooth and safe (Okamura and Amaoka, 1997). For the present treatment has drying and grinding the eastern sea horse is used as a drug the symptoms of diseases ranging from impotence, asthma, heart, kidney, skin and thyroid (Lourie et al, 1999).


Environment has a very important role for the development and survival and the preservation of sea horses. Some paratemer a supportive environment are:

A. Temperature

Temperature is one factor that is essential for living organisms in the ocean because the temperature affects the metabolic activity and proliferation

marine organisms (Hutabarat and Evans, 1986). According to Odum (1971), water temperature

has an important role in the speed of metabolic rate on the ecosystem

waters. Factors that affect the temperature, among others, season, weather, time,

depth of water and human activities around the water (Nybakken, 1992).

Furthermore Parkins (1974), also suggested that water temperature is affected by

substrate composition, brightness, temperature, rainfall, ground water temperature, turbidity and

mixing of seawater with river water.

Temperature indirectly to the metabolism of the horse bepengaruh

the sea. At low water temperatures will inhibit the growth and perkembanganserta lowered immune system so that the sea horse is stressed as well as high temperature (Al Qodri et al, 1998) .7 Simon and Schuster (1997) explains that the sea horse usually live among seaweed clear with a temperature of 250 C. Meanwhile, according to Lourie et al

(1999) in the Indo - Pacific optimum temperature for survival of the sea horse is between 170 C - 200 C. Qodri et al (1998) states that the optimum temperature range for the life of the sea horse is a 200 C - 300 C.

2. Salinity

Salinity is the salt - salt dissolved in one kilogram of sea water and is measured in thousandths. Salinity affects the osmotic pressure of the water, the higher the salinity, the greater the pressure osmotiknya. Salinity plays an important role in the life of the organism, for example in terms of distribution of aquatic and marine life is a parameter that plays an important role in the marine ecological environment (Nybakken, 1992). In ocean waters, salinity usually ranges between 34 0 / 00-35 0/00. In coastal waters due to dilution, such as the influence of river flow, salinity is usually down low. By contrast, in areas with the evaporation of a very

strong, regular salinity increased strongly (Nontji, 1993). Furthermore Nybakken (1992)

states that the salinity of the water concentration is strongly influenced by the supply of fresh water and sea water, rainfall, seasons, tides, and the rate of transport.

There are several types of organisms that are resistant to changes in salinity

large, those that are resistant to salinity is small. According to Al Qodri et al (1998) that sea horses are euryhaline so that it can adapt to a wide territorial waters which have the ability to adjust to the environment with optimum salinity range of 30 0 / 00-32 0/00.

3. The degree of acidity (pH)

The degree of acidity (pH) is the number of hydrogen ions in a solution

is a measure of acidity. Biota - have a range of marine biota to

live at a certain pH value (Nybakken, 1992).

According Nontji (1993), sea water has a pH value that is relatively stable and

typically range between 7.5 - 8.4. Furthermore Parkins (1974) states that

pH value can be affected by photosynthetic activity, temperature, as well as industrial and household waste. Growth and survival of seahorse strongly influenced by the high and low degree of acidity (Puja et al, 1998). 8 The degree of acidity is ideal for the survival of sea horses is 7-8. Waters that are acidic and highly alkaline and can cause death to stop the reproduction of the sea horse (Al Qodri et al, 1998). Furthermore Sitanggang (2002) states that the size of the pH value is strongly influenced by the content of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the water in which carbon dioxide is a result of respiration or breathing fish that generate different CO2 during the day and night. When the night, CO2 levels increased so that the pH of water is also rising. When the morning and afternoon, CO2 levels will drop so that the pH of the water had come down.

4. Dissolved Organic Material (BOT)

Dissolved Organic Material (BOT) or Total Organic Matter (TOM) describes the total organic matter content consisting of a water soluble organic matter, suspended (particulate) and colloids. Bengen (1994) stated that organic matter in the waters there as plankton, particles - suspended particles of organic matter who remodeled (detritus) and materials - total organic matter derived from land and carried away by the river. Further, according to Koesbiono (1985) there are four kinds of sources

producer of organic matter dissolved in seawater, namely (1) derives from the mainland, (2)

process of decay organisms that have died, (3) changes in metabolic - metabolic extracellular by algae, especially phytoplankton, and (4) excretion of zooplankton and animals - other marine animals. According Koesbiono (1985) that waters with organic matter content above 26 mg / l quite fertile.

5. Dissolved Oxygen or Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Dissolved Oxygen or Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a very important parameter considered hidrobiologis for determining the existence of life

death of the organism. Dissolved oxygen levels in the waters of different - different in accordance with the depth, the penetration of light, brightness, type and number of green plants (Wardoyo, 1975).

According to Hutabarat and Evans (1986) suggest that the dissolved oxygen content is essential and is one of the major components of metabolism of aquatic organisms. Aquatic organisms of dissolved oxygen used for growth and fertility. Decreased dissolved oxygen levels can reduce the efficiency of oxygen uptake by 9 marine life that can reduce the ability to live a normal life in the environment.

Dissolved oxygen levels are highest in the coastal environment on the edge of the

where the waves kept open - constantly stirring the water. Found that dissolved oxygen levels rose following the tide down the oxygen levels are highest at high tide. Because of the abundance of life in seagrass beds and charging a fixed supply of nutrients, the very high biological oxygen demand, and thus tend to reduce levels of oxygen in water (Whitten et al, 1987).

Sitanggang (2002) suggests that the dissolved oxygen used by

aquatic organisms through respiration, growth, reproduction and fertility. Decreased dissolved oxygen levels can reduce the efficiency of oxygen uptake by the marine biota, which can decrease the ability to live a normal life in the environment. Required for live just 1 mg / l dissolved oxygen, whereas in order to grow and develop at least 3 mg / l. When dissolved oxygen is less than 3 mg / l and the last in a long time, will lead to impaired growth and reduced fish appetite. Further sea horses can adapt to a wide area of ​​water with dissolved oxygen values> 3 mg / l (Al Qodri et al, 1998). Although seahorses do not move on, they still require an adequate oxygen content, especially parent - the parent who is incubating male child - her son. Because in addition to himself, the male parent who is incubating her son must supply enough oxygen into his pocket so that eggs - eggs that are contained in the sac can hatch and develop fully (Al Qodri et al, 1998).

6. Depth

Outline the depth of the sea waters were two shallow water

of exposure and deep ocean waters. Exposure (shelf) zone in the ocean is calculated from the lowest point of the line up at a depth of about 120-200 m, which is then usually followed by a steeper slope towards the sea (Nontji, 1993). Water depth has a significant impact on marine biota. This is related to the pressure received by biota in the water, because water pressure increases with increasing depth (Nybakken, 1992) .10 Furthermore Hutabarat and Evans (2000) adds that depth has a close relationship to the vertical stratification of temperature, light penetration, density and oxygen content as well as substances - nutrients. Horses generally live in shallow waters of the ocean to a depth of 30 m depending on the type (PetPlace, 2003).

7. Turbidity

Water turbidity is a measure of biasan light in the water caused by the presence of colloidal particles and the suspension of a pollutant that is contained in water. Water turbidity is also a term used to express the degree of darkness in the water caused by the material

floating in the water. Turbidity in water is strongly influenced by the state

environment or activities that occur in these waters (Wardoyo, 1975).

The factors - factors that affect the turbidity of the water such as:

mud, particles, carbon, organic fine particulate matter, plankton and other small organisms (Wetzel and Likens, 1979). Turbidity level depends on

depth of the waters and a number of activities that occur in these waters,

other than that the current can also be regarded as factor contributing to the turbidity,

because of strong currents will lift particles - particles that are at the bottom

waters (Parkins, 1974).

8. Plankton

Plankton are organisms that live floating or floating in the

water. Motion capability, if any, is limited to such organisms are always carried away by currents. Plankton are divided into two main groups namely phytoplankton and zooplankton. Phytoplankton also called plankton plant is a plant very common in all waters, but due to microscopic size is hard to see his presence. While zooplankton often called animal plankton, consisting of very many kinds of animals. Larger than phytoplankton are even used to reach over one meter as the jellyfish - jellyfish. Plankton, both phytoplankton and zooplankton become food for many species of other marine animals (Nontji 1993).

According to Puja et al (1998), the type - the type of phytoplankton that are used as feed seahorses are Tetraselmis sp, Chlorella and Dunaliella sp sp where the species of phytoplankton are fed to the copepods. Zooplankton have 11penting role in marine ecosystems, as zooplankton become food for many species of other marine animals. Seahorses include carnivorous, eating small animals of all kinds ranging from members of the group of crustaceans to fish larvae. While the initial foal sea food is a low level of crustaceans such as copepods, shrimp larvae and artemia naupli that will accelerate its growth (Al Qodri, 1999). Seahorse has eyes that are free to move, making it easier to highlight their prey are small crustaceans (brine shrimp) and plankton, which is inhaled into the mouth like a tube with a clinch head starts very quickly. In the absence of teeth, this creature has a voracious appetite that is consuming all that is alive to meet their digestive systems are not efficient (PetPlace, 2003). With a jerk of the head, the unsuspecting fish, larvae, plankton or other organic beings quite fit, can be sucked into a powerful muzzle. However, in experiments in the laboratory, Hippocampus ingens has proven to be a picky eater (Mann, 1998). Based on these facts it has been observed that the intensity of light decreases in a negative impact on the ability of at least one type of Caribbean (Caribbean sea horses) to find food everywhere (James, 1994). This may explain why large sebahagian seahorses are foraging during the day.


Seahorses saving means saving the seas. Seahorse can

help promote marine conservation, by making it as something special between the amount of coverage of marine conservation issues. There are several reasons that can be used as the basis for the sea horse is the kind of fish that generated a lot of curiosity as it is the kind that are threatened by overexploitation (for traditional medicines, aquarium displays, curiosity and tonic food), fishing with the use of fishing gear are not selective and the degradation of their habitat.

Biological Kemampaun as mentioned below may be

very sensitive to sea horses to over-fishing (Lourie, et al. 1999):

a. The size of small children to limit the potential reproductive rate.

b. Incubation system by male shows the survival of individual

depends on the ability of young stem of survival for much

greater than most fish.

c. Available in most monogamous species that have been investigated show

that animals that do not have a spouse can not reproduce

until they can find a new partner.

d. low population density indicates that the missing pair is not

can be replaced quickly.

e. Observations on individuals who have been known to show that the level of

death of an adult animal is naturally low probability, which makes

fishing activities as a form of pressure, and

f. The existence of a low mobility of adult animals that includes the most species may limit the re-colonization of the area that became extinct, although only the first juvenile disappeared.

Broad understanding for the conservation of this need to be challenged to acquire basic knowledge of key life history parameters of sea horses

such as growth rate, age and dispersals juvenile seahorses. However, more important is the opportunity to continue the marine conservation in general. By him, the future of sea horse rescue, relatives and their habitats will require the cooperation of scientists, policy makers and nongovernmental organizations around the world that can be done through:

A. Kehidpan assist fishing communities, through training and consultation,

development of skill and authority to manage resources

their use.

2. Develop new management protocols and other forms of fisheries

tropical, and understand the economic and ecological impacts of fisheries activities

is not intended for food.

3. Reducing unnecessary arrests in the use of equipment

non-selective fishing, particularly for species which are difficult

to be removed from the fishery.

4. Rebuild the estuary habitat, mangrov, coral reefs and seagrass

degradation of marine ecosystems that are important and have been

in dangerous conditions around the world

5. Implementing marine protected areas (marine protected areas (mPas)) for

increase the number, size and diversity of fish in the MPA and to

improve fishing outside the MPA.

6. Develop alternative livelihoods that are ecologically safer

and economically sustainable, in order to reduce pressure on

the utilization of fishing on wildlife populations.

7. Develop a pattern of ecological certification for seafood, in the form

cooperation with customers.

2.6 Hatchery and enlargement / captive

2.6.1 Hatchery

Seeding activities such as sea horses in breeding activity generally consists of a series of linked activities. The first link is the maintenance of the prospective parent to get the parent mature gonads. Furthermore the spawning activities, maintenance and penggelondongan juveniles or nursery as well as natural food supply. Entire chain of activities should be known in making planning, as close relation to the means necessary to support the implementation of activities. Completeness and selection of appropriate tools not only help smooth the activity but also determine the success of the hatchery business. Seahorses including carnivores, eating all kinds of small animals ranging from crustaceans to fish larvae. Based on the feeding behavior of predatory horse laut12 is passive, waiting for food that is past and mneyerang its prey by sucking up to get into a long snout. For the maintenance of seahorse juveniles can be used like any form, however there are conditions that should not be filled with the bath has a corner to die because it would cause metabolic waste and dirt easily collects on suduk tub. The container used in pemneliharaan Juwan seahorse aquarium varied from tub, fiberglass and concrete tank. Ukurannyapun vary the amount and myrrh bergatung juveniles seahorses are maintained. Density used for juveniles seahorses from day 1 to day 30 was 1000 - 1500/ton. After more than 30 days old in density was reduced to 200-300 head / ton. Seahorse juveniles can be fed natural copepods and artemia naupli. Maintenance of juveniles can be done for 1.5 - 2 months to reach the size of 3-5 cm / tail.

Figure 2. Juveniles seahorses are ready to be stocked

2.6.1 Enlargement / sea horse breeding

a. Penggelondongan

Penggelondongan in this case is intended to intensify the maintenance of the seeds of the sea horse to the stage of enlargement with a high survival rate and good quality. Penggelondongan sea horses can be carried out by using the method of maintenance in the tub, in floating net cages or dikurungan step. Seeds are used to penggelondongan can be derived from the catch in the wild or derived from the hatchery to the size of 3 to 3.5 cm / tail.

Figure 3. Floating cages for penggelondongan or

enlargement of the sea horse

Things to consider when stocking is when there is a difference

striking between the media and the maintenance of the origin of the seed media (particularly salinity and temperature). This situation usually occurs when a location separate penggelondongan with seed source, so it needs to be adapted before stocked. Penggelondongan dispersive solid for 2 months for maintenance is between 300-400 head / ton. During maintenance, feeding can be done 3-4 times a day. Foods that should be given live food like mosquito larvae, artemia, shrimp jembret, dapnia and sebainya. Toxicity of sea horses are classified as less active in seeking and Utilizing the only food around / near it, causing the feed given should be abundant and better life. It is

opportunities to eat larger seeds and if there remains an untapped food will remain alive so that a relatively small effect on

decline in water quality. Seed size from 3 to 3.5 cm after 2 months of maintenance will reach a length of 6-7 cm / tail. At this size, sea horses can be harvested and marketed as an ornamental or for fish rearing activities.

b. Enlargement

Activities during the enlargement of the sea horse is not much different from the pengglodongan. Enlargement is aimed at producing seahorses larger (above 10 cm) or to produce the parent seahorses. Bred seahorses that would be obtained from nature or from the penggelondongan. Seahorses should be selected that healthy and complete organs, if the sea horse is different then the color would be raised seahorses are the same color like black with a black united, because if there is a yellow seahorses and united with the black will turn black. Density for pemebesaran activity is 50-100 tail / ton. During maintenance activities enlargement seahorses, are no longer given in the form of adult artemia as no longer necessary, given enough fresh or jembret rebon. Feeding of fresh rebon given as much as 5-10% of body weight per day with a frequency of 2-3 times. If fresh food is less available rebon then feed alternatives that can be given is a mosquito larva. After three months of the maintenance of seahorses can reach a length of 10 cm above the sea horse can then be harvested and marketed.


Seahorse is one type of sea fish that is very unique because it has a different morphology than the other fish. In addition to the typical morphology is the shape of his head resembling a horse's head, male fish had egg sacs hatch that is not found in other types of fish.

Another attraction is the upright body position while swimming sertakemampuan to adjust the color of his body to the environment, membuatpenampilannya increasingly attractive as an ornamental fish in the aquarium. In addition to the ornamental aquarium fish, sea horses are used for souvenirs can also be used as raw material for traditional medicines. The fact is causing sea horses have a relatively high economic value in the market, thus encouraging the arrest of a fairly intensive in nature, so the longer the likely sustainability is threatened and diminished in number.

For sustainability and sea horse populations can continue the steps you can take is to conduct the breeding and restocking in the wild again. To perform these activities must be obtained through the seed breeding activities in the culture system.
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thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus)

Welcome to The Thylacine Museum, an online educational guide to the thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger.  Here you will find information covering virtually all aspects of the natural history of this unique Australian marsupial.

 The thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) is the only species of the marsupial family Thylacinidae to have existed within historical times.  It is often referred to as the Tasmanian tiger or Tasmanian wolf, but being a marsupial, it is neither a tiger or a wolf in any true sense.  It is, however, an excellent example of convergent evolution.  This is the process by which rather distantly related species independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems.  This occurs as a result of adaptation to similar environments and ways of life.  The thylacine's body shape approximately resembles that of the placental wolf because it is a cursorial predator which occupies a similar ecological niche.  Apart from the notable differences in dentition, even the thylacine's skull structure superficially parallels that of a canid.

 The last survivor of a very ancient and once diverse family of carnivorous marsupials, the thylacine is a truly amazing and beautiful mammal.  Sadly, it is the victim of one of man's most atrocious acts of destruction toward the fauna of Australia.  Out of misunderstanding, irrational fear and simply because it was perceived as a threat to economic interests, a genocidal assault was waged against the species.  Thus, thousands of thylacines were destroyed by man during the 19th and early 20th centuries.  By the time that this action was seen as the horrible tragedy that it truly was, the thylacine had been persecuted nearly to extinction.

 The thylacine has always been one of my specialized areas of study and research, and through this virtual museum, I hope to promote a greater awareness of this most remarkable marsupial.  Click on any of the topic listings shown below to begin your tour of the museum.  If you are new to the site however, I suggest that you start at the first of the six sections - "Introducing the Thylacine".  Clicking on a section's title image will take you to its introductory page.

The Australian continent is home to over one million species of animals, many of them unique, and many of them endangered. While we know of many extinct animals, There is one example which reminds us that life is fragile, and that extinct means forever, We're talking of course, about the Tasmanian tiger, or Thylacine, a marsupial carnivore which was wiped out of existence in the early 1930s.

The Thylacine, like other marsupials, had a pouch in which it carried its young. Although it was a distant relative of the Opossum, it also had canine and feline features and is also related to the Tasmanian Devil.  Other names for the Thylacine include: Dog Faced Dasyurus, Kangaroo wolf, Pouched wolf, Zebra wolf, Hyena wolf, and Wolf or Hyena Opossum.

The Thylacine fed on smaller animals, and did most of its hunting at dusk.  Even though it had powerful jaws which could rip apart flesh and bone, this animal was no match against the increasing Dingo population that had been brought in by the Aborigines, so they were forced off the Mainland and ultimately wound up on the Island of Tasmania.

Farmers who lived on the island did not appreciate the introduction of this new predator which posed a threat to their livestock, so a bounty was put on the animals, leading to the near extermination of the species.

Although the Thylacine was now virtually extinct, It remained an enemy in the eyes of the settlers, who continued exterminating the animal until 1933.  It wasn't until three years later that the Thylacine was declared an endangered species, but by then it was too late, the Thylacine was virtually extinct.

Since then, there have been thousands of reported sightings of the Thylacine, but there never is enough conclusive evidence to prove the possible existence of a Thylacine population.

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Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Tilapia history Legend

Tilapia history Legend of tilapia has existed since 4000 years ago. Tilapia Tilapia nilotica in the Latin name. Aristotle and his colleagues gave the name 300 years BC, named after the largest river in Africa that empties into the northern coast of Egypt. It is said that the kingdom because tilapia is the fish food is very scarce at first, but other tilapia species already exist in the entire African inland waters such as tilapia mosambicus, o. Aurea, o. Urelepis hornorum and so forth. Nilotica maintained in the ponds in the king's palace. "Ancient Egypt is not the only one who appreciates indigo. Nila has been, and remain, an important food fish for many different groups that live in Africa and the Levant. Greece is known as a fan and is believed to have been named Aristotle tilapia Tilapia niloticus (fish nil) in 300 BC. Tilapia is also a part of Christian mythology as fish caught by the apostle Peter in Matthew 17:27 is believed to have become indigo. In English, tilapia species to see a certain pattern which is often referred to as "St. Peter's fish". According to legend, the dark spots on the fish caused by fingerprints of the apostles. St. Peter's fish's name is also used for the John Dory fish, Zeus Faber, but this is a marine species in the Bible and the story revolves around the Sea of ​​Galilee, a freshwater lake in Israel. Sea of ​​Galilee is home to the tilapia Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus. Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus been fishing by local fishermen in the Sea of ​​Galilee for thousands of years. When they came to Capernaum, the Temple tax collectors approached Peter and said, "Teacher pay the temple tax, is not it?" He replied, "Yes." When Peter came home, Jesus spoke to him, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom the kings of the earth collect taxes or tribute? Of their own, or from strangers?" When he says, "From strangers," Jesus said to him, "In this case, he is free. However, so that we do not offend them, go to the sea and cast a fishing line. Take the first fish that comes up, open mouth, and You will find coins. Take and give it to them for me and you. " Matthew 17:24 to 17:27 " Tilapia in Indonesia is still quite new and is definitely someone to bring in from outside and not necessarily from Africa. It could be this tilapia from our neighboring countries. Tilapia in the Future Limitations of a fish on the high seas make more and more consumers are looking for an alternative breed in freshwater aquaculture. Tilapia could play an important role here, because farmers are not caught from the wild. Several projects have also been launched in which poor families around the world are encouraged to raise tilapia, tilapia breeding behind their own back yard to eat alone and if the excess can be sold to local markets. In Latin America, the larger commercial farms to export fresh fish tilapia to the U.S. market. This has provided employment opportunities for locals. Exports of frozen tilapia farming is also an important source of income for many countries in Southeast Asia. Tilapia farming can be a way for tropical countries to take advantage of the warm climate, because tilapia can be grown all year round as long as the water temperature is high enough. Another important aspect of raising tilapia is that a lot of tilapia species do not need to be fed a diet rich in protein, and this can really contribute. In many countries, small-scale farmers now mengabungkan chickens or other pets on their fish ponds for tilapia received additional food. Tilapia fish would be one alternative in the mass of the people of Indonesia will come because it has been growing a new variety of fish species. Enrich the types of fish in ponds, rivers, lakes. And more importantly consumers enrich the high protein supplies. - Ikannila cheap compared to other fish - Can be maintained in the yard - Reproduction or breeding of tilapia is easily - Reproduce every month - The growth of tilapia is relatively fast compared to other fish - Species like tilapia clean as clean water, flowed not like catfish - Maintenance time is also shorter than the other fish As you know, protein is essential for brain development and the human body. Protein abundant in marine fish and fish ashore. Tilapia can be a source of high protein. Consumption of tilapia will be needed for several reasons above.
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Monday, April 9, 2012

Bald eagles

The bald eagle is the largest raptor in Utah and second only to the Condor in North America. As with most raptors, the female is larger than the male. Males may weigh as little as 4.5 pounds and the largest females may weigh up to 14 pounds. The wingspan is 6.5-8 feet and the body may be up to 36 inches long. Bald eagles from the northern parts of their range are usually much larger then the southern birds. The adult plumage is attained gradually over a 4-5 year period and is dark brown on the body with a white head and tail. Male and females have the same coloring. The large beak, eyes and feet are bright yellow. First-year juvenile birds have a dark brown plumage mottled with white, particularly on the underparts. The beak and eyes of the juvenile are dark brown and gradually change to yellow as the bird matures.

Bald eagles are large, aggressive, vocal raptors who often use communal roost sites except during the breeding season. Although very efficient hunters, bald eagles are very piratical in their feeding habits, and often steal prey from other birds. They are usually migratory and are commonly found along waterways. In Utah, they arrive in November and typically stay until the end of February. Bald eagles that winter in Utah return to western Canada in the spring. Bald eagles generally return to traditional breeding sites in the spring of the year.


Bald eagles in the southern United States may nest as early as December, while in the northern parts of their range, they may nest as late as May. They mate for life. Aerial courtship displays often include "talon grappling", a series of descending somersaults the pair performs with their feet locked together. Nests are generally used year after year, and may reach enormous proportions. One nest measured 8.5 feet in diameter, was 12 feet tall and weighed an estimated 8.5 tons. Nests are most often built in trees but may be found on cliffs or even on the ground in treeless areas. 2-3 large eggs are laid in the grass or seaweed-lined nest and are incubated for 35 days. The first eaglet to hatch may contribute to sibling mortality either by pushing them out of the nest or by eating most of the food brought by the adults. Eaglets generally take their first flight at 2.5-3 months of age and the parental care period continues for the next 2-3 months.
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Saturday, February 4, 2012


Coelacanth is an ancient order of fish believed to have been extinct in the late Cretaceous period 65juta years ago. That was until 1938, when one was miraculously found off the east coast of South Africa near the mouth of the River Chalumna. Closely related to lungfishes and tetrapods, the coelacanth is the survival of the oldest known to exist. They can live for 100 years and swam at a depth of 90-100 meters.

Coelacanth derived from the Greek word which means hollow spine (thorn / spine grooved) estimated to have been extinct since the Cretaceous era. But startling discoveries continue to arrive over the discovery of these animals in the waters of Tanzania, Madagascar, Kenya, and Indonesia, precisely Bunaken National Marine Park (mantab bro!). Although these animals die after being arrested fishermen, this animal is believed to still exist and live in deep water (> 700 m). Coelacanth fossil is one of life because it almost did not change significantly in these animals physically from time to time.
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