Monday, June 6, 2011

Java or Javan rhino Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is the largest animal in Java

Java or Javan rhino Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is the largest animal in Java. Weighing can reach 1.5 tons, pale-skinned. Javan rhino has spread throughout much of the mountain in West Java, such as mountain-Pangrango Gede, Gunung Salak, Mt. Tangkuban Perahu and gunun Ciremei.

Javan nickname seems less appropriate because of its natural distribution, as far as can be ascertained, never reach the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh to Vietnam and to the southwest of China, and a description of the first rhino came from specimens found in Sumatra. Original distribution as a whole will never be known, because at a different time and at a different place Java rhinoceros was once confused with Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Sumatran rhino and Indian rhino / one-horned Rhinoceros unicornis.

Formerly known only rhino and the southern part of West Java and from Mt. Slamet in Central Java, although there are fossils found in the north of Yogyakarta. When Junghuhn climb Mt. Pangrango in 1839 (first recorded ascent by Europeans), he surprised two Javan rhinoceros near the top of the mountain, one is soaking in a small river and the others were grazing on the riverbank (Junghuhn 1854). Some paths in some mountain trail follows the former rhino, and pathways in the mountains that there may be remnants dijawa last of the presence of this large animal.

Twelve tail contained the last Javan rhinoceros of Sumatra have been shot by hunters Netherlands between the years 1925-1930, and after that a longer shot in Karangnunggal (Tasikmalaya) in 1934.

Until the late 19th century, city residents can still watch the Javan rhino, rhino Priangan they call it. Not surprisingly, in Bandung some areas that are named Rancabadak. But in 1895 a Dutch hunter shot dead Javan rhino is not far from the city of Bandung, that's the last Javan rhinoceros in the city of Bandung.

People believe that the rest of the population of Javan rhinoceros now exist only in the Ujung Kulon National Park, where the first reported its existence in 1861. Nevertheless, in 1989, ten Javan rhinoceros tails are found to survive along the Dong Nai river in southern Vietnam.

Javan rhino was eating shoots and grasses. Rhino eat the young leaves, shoots and branches that grow on the soil surface. If these foods can not be reached because it was too high, the rhino will try to break the stalks with rammed his way to the shaft, or by destroying the bars with his teeth.

There are more than 150 plant species identified as food rhinoceros, and probably all kinds of plants that can be achieved and the appropriate size will be eaten. Rhinoceros eat his meals in a variety of vegetation types, although mostly done in places that are not protected, for example, among the trees that fall or in the desert shrubs without trees.

Javan rhinoceros has a horn which is located at the tip of his nose. Sense of smell and hearing are very sharp, but the Javanese rhinoceros has poor eyesight (nearsightedness). Javan rhinos give birth every 3-5 years. Contain 16 months old, generally give birth to one child only tail and maintained its mother until age 2 years, after the adult child to leave its mother. Age Javan rhino can reach up to 50 years.

The diversity of food rhino may be the response to the need to limit or prevent the toxins that enter, maximizing the content of certain minerals, as well as overcome the difficulties caused by the diversity of the season. Because almost all records of food crops derived from indirect observations, it is relevant to note that damage to the trunks of trees are commonly conducted by the rhino can also be caused by bison and deer.

Rhino is one of the ancient mammals that are still alive. Javan rhino Baluchitherium ancestors, have lived 50 million years ago, since the days of Erasia. Javan rhino is still a family with horses and donkeys, which animal has the odd nail.

Rhinoceros horns are the evolution of rhino hair that united and hardened. Since time immemorial humans hunt rhinos just to get culanya. It is said that rhino horn used as a concoction of drugs or become valuable art handicrafts.
There are five types of rhino that is on earth namely:
1. African white rhinoceros
2. African black rhinoceros
3. Indian Rhinoceros
4. Sumatran Rhinoceros
5. Javan rhino

Sumatran rhino has two horns that can reach lengths of 80cm at the front and 20 inches in the rear. Height 140 cm long and 3 meters. Sumatran rhinos are found in Sumatra (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) or often called buffalo rhino. This rhinoceros (Dicerprhinus harrissoni) can also be found in the forests of east Kalimantan.

Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) has a single horn whose length reaches 60 cm. Height 170 cm, and 3.8 meters long. These rhinos live in the southern subcontinent.

African white rhinoceros (Cerathotherium simum) is the largest rhino with 1.8 meters height and length can reach 5 meters, has two horns. Front horn can reach 137 cm in length and the second horn length can reach 60 cm.

African black rhino or Dicerros bicornis height can reach 1.6 meters and a length of 4 meters. Has two horns that panjuangnya can reach 70cm in front and 50 inches in the rear.

Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is the smallest rhino species with 140 cm height, and length of 3 meters. Having one horn with a length of 30 cm.

The main factor in the continued decline of the Javan Rhinoceros population has been poaching for horns, a problem That affects all rhino species. The horns have been a traded commodity in China for over 2.000 years Nowhere They are believed to have healing properties in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Historically, its hide was Used to make armor for Chinese Soldiers and local Tribes in Vietnam Some believed the hide cans be Used to make an antidote for snake venom. Because the rhinoceros's range encompasses many areas of poverty, it has been Difficult to convince local people not to kill a seemingly useless animal Could Be the which sold for a large sum of money. When the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora first Went into effect in 1975, the Javan Rhinoceros was placed under complete Appendix 1 protection: all international trade in the Javan Rhinoceros and products derived from it is illegal. [28] Surveys of the rhinoceros horn black market have determined That Asian rhinoceros horn fetches a price as high as $ 30,000 per kilogram, three times the value of African rhinoceros horn. A painting from 1861 depicts the hunting of Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus

Because of loss of habitat for agriculture has Also Contributed to its decline, though this is no longer as significant a factor Because the rhinoceros only lives in two nationally protected parks. Deteriorating habitats have hindered the recovery of rhino Populations That Fell victim to poaching. Even with all the conservation Efforts, the prospects for the Javan Rhinoceros's survival are grim. Because the Populations are restricted to two small areas, They are very susceptible to disease and the problems of inbreeding. Conservation geneticists That estimate a population of 100 Rhinos would be needed to preserve the genetic diversity of this conservation reliant species.

The Ujung Kulon peninsula was devastated by the Eruption of Krakatoa in 1883. The Javan Rhinoceros recolonized the peninsula after the Explosion, but Humans never returned in large numbers, Thus creating a haven. In 1931, as the Javan Rhinoceros was on the Brink of Extinction in Sumatra, the government of the Dutch Indies declared the rhino a legally protected species, the which it has remained ever since. In 1967 Pls a census was first conducted of the Rhinos in Ujung Kulon, only 25 animals were the resource persons Recorded. By 1980 That Had population doubled, and has remained steady at about 50 ever since.

Although the Rhinos in Ujung Kulon have no natural predators, They have to Compete for scarce resources wild cattle with the which May keep the rhino's numbers below the peninsula's carrying capacity. Ujung Kulon is managed by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry. Evidence of at least four Rhinos baby was discovered in 2006, the most ever documented for the species. In March 2011, hidden-camera video was published showing Adults and juveniles, indicating recent matings and breeding.

A Javan Rhinoceros has not been exhibited in zoos in a century. In the 19th century, at least four Rhinos were the resource persons exhibited in Adelaide, Calcutta and London. A total of at least 22 Javan Rhinos have been documented as having been kept in captivity, and it is possible That the number is Greater Sometimes as the species was confused with the Indian Rhinoceros. The Javan Rhinoceros never fared well in captivity: the oldest lived to be 20, about half the age the Rhinos will of reach in the wild. The last captive Javan Rhino Died at the Adelaide Zoo in Australia in 1907 Nowhere the species was so little known That Had it been exhibited as an Indian Rhinoceros. Because a lengthy and expensive program in the 1980s and 1990s to breed the Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in zoos failed badly, attempts to preserve the Javan species in zoos are unlikely.

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