Sunday, July 17, 2011

Sumatran Tiger

Sumatran tiger, or in Latin is called Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of five subspisies tiger (Panthera tigris) in the world that still survive. Including the endangered Sumatran tiger who is also the only sub-spisies tigers that still belongs to Indonesia after the two brothers Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) and the Java tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) declared extinct.

Animals of the phylum Chordata can only be found on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. Its population is estimated to live in the wild tail 400-500. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is increasingly rare and classified as an endangered species.


Tigers are believed to be descendants of the ancient predators known as Miacids. Miacids alive at the end of the Cretaceous period about 70-65 million years ago during the reign of dinosaurs in West Asia (Andrew Kitchener, "The Natural History of Wild Cats"). Tigers evolved in eastern Asia in China and Siberia before berpecah two, one moving toward the woods of Central Asia in the west and southwest of the Caspian tiger. Some are moving from Central Asia to the western mountainous region, and beyond to the islands of southeast Asia and Indonesia, partly to keep moving to the west as far as India (Hemmer, 1987).

The Sumatran tiger is believed alienated when sea levels rose at 6,000 to 12,000 years ago. Cutting-edge genetic testing has revealed genetic markers unique, indicating that this subspecies has distinct characteristics with other tigers subspisies and very likely evolve into separate species, if managed sustainably.

Please note, there are nine subspecies of tiger that three of them have been declared extinct. Ninth subspisies tiger are:
Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) found in Malaysia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal.
South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) China.
Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), also known as the Amur, Ussuri, Northeast China tiger, or Manchurian tiger. There are in China, North Korea, and Central Asia in Russia.
Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) are found only in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) is located in peninsular Malaysia.
Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) have become extinct around 1950. Caspian tiger is found in Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia, Turkey, and Russia.
Java tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) became extinct around 1972. Javan tigers are on the island of Java, Indonesia.
Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) that became extinct around 1937. Tigers are on the island of Bali Bali, Indonesia.

Characteristics and Habitat

Sumatran tigers are the smallest tiger subspecies. Sumatran tiger has the darkest color among all other tiger subspecies, the black pattern width and the distance is sometimes attached tightly.

Sumatran tiger males have an average length of 92 inches from head to tail, weighing 300 pounds. Females have an average length of 78 inches and weighs 200 pounds. Sumatran tiger stripes are thinner than other tiger subspecies. This subspecies also had more beard and mane than other subspecies, especially the male tiger.

Its small size makes it easier to move through the jungle. There is a membrane in between the fingers that make them able to swim fast. The tiger is known to drive hoofed prey into the water, especially if the prey animal is a slow swimmer. Fur changed color to dark green when giving birth.

Sumatran tigers are found only on Sumatra island. Rare cat is able to live anywhere, from lowland forests to mountain forests, and lived in many places are not protected.

Sumatran tiger food depends where he lives and how plentiful prey. Sumatran tigers are solitary animals that hunt at night. This cat stalking its prey patiently before attacking from behind or the side. They eat anything that can be captured, generally boar and deer, and sometimes poultry, fish, and orangutans. According to the Sumatran tigers are also locals like to eat durian.

Sumatran tigers are also able to swim and climb trees when hunting prey. Sumatran tiger poaching of forest area is not precisely known, but it is estimated that 4-5 require adult Sumatran tigers roaming area 100 square kilometers.


Until now the only remaining estimated 400-500 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) which still survive in the wild. In addition there is at least 250 Sumatran tiger tails that are kept in zoos worldwide.

Habitat destruction is the greatest threat to the Sumatran tiger population today. Logging continues even in national parks should be protected. Recorded 66 tigers were killed between 1998 and 2000.

In an effort to rescue tigers from extinction, Taman Safari Indonesia is appointed by the 20 zoos in the world as the Sumatran Tiger Breeding Center, studbook keeper and sperm storage (Genome Rescue Bank) for Sumatran tigers.

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