Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Octopus vulgaris

Octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has 8 arms with suction device in the form of hollow spheres along the arm used for moving on the ocean floor and catch prey. Octopuses move by swimming with his head in front, followed by his arms.

Like most invertebrates, the octopus has no skeleton inside, although there are some invertebrates that have a shell of bone in his body like a cuttlefish. Octopus also has no outer skeleton to protect the organs of his body, although there are species of the same class (cephalopods: animals foot location in the head) having outer shell, such as Nautilus. Because composed of muscles, octopus's body is very flexible and able to slip away among narrow rocks on the seabed.

Respiratory System

Octopuses have three parts of the heart, 2 to pump blood to the two branches of the gills and 1 part to pump blood throughout the body. Octopus blood contains proteins Hemosianin rich with copper to transport oxygen. Compared with the hemoglobin-rich with iron, Hemosianin less efficient in transporting oxygen. Hemosianin soluble in plasma and not bound by red blood cells so that blood pale blue octopus. Octopus breathes by sucking water into the mantle cavity through both pieces of gills and flushed out through the funnel.

Self Defense System

Octopus has 3 self-defense mechanism: ink, camouflage and decided sleeve (autotomi). Octopuses are very intelligent animals and are probably the most intelligent of all invertebrates.

Digestive System

Octopus capture and crush prey with berpenghisapnya arm. They also have a part to chew their prey, making them easier to digest.

Reproductive System

Male octopuses put the sperm into the female octopus mantle using a special arm called hectocotylus. A few months after mating, the male octopus will die. Once fertilized, 2 months later octopus females will lay eggs (can be up to 200,000 grains) and egg-shaped capsule collection dangling strands forming on the ceiling of the nest. Parent octopus is very concerned about the eggs. They will guard the nest from predators and the gentle flutter of water flow so that the eggs are not deprived of oxygen. Female octopus does not eat for caring for their eggs (up to 6 months). Not long after the eggs hatch, the mother octopus dies.

After the eggs hatch, the larvae drift with the octopus will flock while prey copepod plankton, larval crabs & sea star larvae until fairly large and heavy to be on the seafloor.

Young octopus increases body weight by 5 percent every day. Juvenile octopus grows at a pace fast, because the octopus a short life span. Most species of octopus living between 12-18 months and breed once in a lifetime. North Pacific giant octopus (can weigh up to 40 kg) are able to live up to 5 years in ideal environmental conditions.

After aged between 1-2 years, adult octopus is ready to mate. The cycle was repeated.

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